Colorado State University

Special Collections

The Rolston Digital Archives

Rolston Digital Archives in Colorado State University Library

Rolston has extensive digital archives in the Colorado State University Library. These are available online anywhere in the world at no charge.

 

Rolston Digital Archives – main page.

link to http://digitool.library.colostate.edu/R/?func=collections&collection_id=1756

 

The articles are arranged in groups (called “Collections.”)

The collections are:

Numbers in parentheses are the number of items in that collection. The specific articles/chapters are displayed in the CSU Library format in groups of twenty, which can be sorted various ways, most conveniently  by title.

Biographical Materials (21)

Gifford Lectures (11)

Templeton Prize (37)

Mendel Medal (1)

Environmental Ethics: Books (5)

Environmental Ethics: Anthologies & Journal Articles (164)

Natural History: Articles (18)

Science & Religion: Books (4)

Science & Religion: Anthologies & Journal Articles (40)

Streaming Media (21)

Trails and Trips – Log (10)

Following the Colorado State University digital archives style, typically an initial “The” is kept up front, and alphabetized as such, starting with THE.

Each of the particular Rolston digital archive texts is in a searchable .pdf format and can be downloaded as a specific article. Articles in languages other than English are online in .pdf format, but not searchable.

Articles are identified with a unique URL called a “handle.”

For example: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37191

The handles incorporated into the bibliographic items below are hot links to digital files, and are given for convenience in indexing and downloading.

 

Biographical Materials

 

Biographical Notes: Holmes Rolston, III.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37725.   Biography, publications, lectures, awards, critical notice, profiles, interviews, biographical entries, and related materials, in print and online, including some media.  Links to publications by year and by type.  See also Templeton Award, below.

“Eigingildi í náttúrunni — heimspeki á villigötum?” (in Icelandic) [“Intrinsic Value in Nature — A Philosophy Gone Wild?”].  Interview by Thorvardur Arnason with Holmes Rolston, III, in Hugur 17(2005), pages 12-26.  Published in 2006.  Hugur is an annual, the only Icelandic periodical that is solely dedicated to philosophy. Text in Icelandic, followed by English transcript.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37730. Ethics has been constantly becoming more inclusive, and that ought to encompass the larger community of life on Earth. Values are present in living organisms, independently of humans. Iceland has more opportunity for protecting a larger proportion of its landscape as wild nature than does the United States, or other more temperate nations. Rolston finds the Iceland environment challenging, in some ways recalling the challenges he faced in Antarctica. Hugur is an annual, the only Icelandic periodical that is solely dedicated to philosophy.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics,  science,  religion,  biography,  Iceland, Antarctica.

Entrevista: Dr. Holmes Rolston III (Interview: Dr. Holmes Rolston, III),” Açao Ambiental (Environmental Action), vol. 7, no. 30, September/October 2004, pages 5-8.  In Portuguese, followed by English transcript.  Interviewer James Griffith.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37729.   An interview of Rolston in the extension journal of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, in a theme issue on environmental philosophy.   Rolston recalls visits to Brazil, first for the 1992 UNCED Conference in Rio de Janeiro and the second in 2000 for the II Brazilian National Conference on Protected Areas, in Campo Grande. Concern for a sustainable biosphere has more priority than sustainable development. Living on Earth is not just looking out for ourselves, but ought also to show concern for the larger community of life on Earth, so marvelously exemplified in Brazil.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- , environmental ethics, science, religion, biography, Brazil.

“Holmes Rolston III 1932.”   Pages 260-268 in Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment (London: Routledge, 2001).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37719.    Biographical and interpretive article by Jack Weir.  Holmes Rolston is widely recognized as the “father of environmental ethics” as an academic discipline. More so than any other, he has shaped the essential nature, scope and issues of the discipline. The following six principles are basic to his work: 1. The Homologous Principle: Follow Nature; 2. The Value-Capture Principle; 3. The Organic Principle: Respect for Life; 4. The Species Principle: Preserve ‘Forms’ of Life; 5. The Ecosystemic Principle; 6. The Three ‘Environments’ Principle: Urban, Rural and Wilderness (or, the Nature-Culture Principle).   Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.
Translated into Japanese.  ホームズ・ロールストンIII 1932-, Vol. 2, pages 194-208 in 環境の思想家たち(下) Kankyō no shisōka tachi [Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment], trans. 須藤自由児 Sudōu Jiyuji (Tokyo: Misuzu Shobō, 2004).  ISBN 4-622-08162-8.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37776.

“Holmes Rolston III 1932- ”  ホームズ・ロールストンIII 1932- (in Japanese).  In 環境の思想家たち (下) Kankyō no shisōka tachi (Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment) 2: 194-208. Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 2004).  ISBN 4-622-08162-8.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37776.  Translated by 須藤自由児 Sudōu Jiyuji, from Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment, Joy A. Palmer et al., ed. (London: Routledge, 2001).   See that entry.

“Holmes Rolston III (b. 1932)”.  Page 42 in Clare Palmer, Environmental Ethics (Contemporary Ethical Issues) (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1997).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37728.  Biographical sketch.  Rolston has been of central importance in the development of environmental ethics as an academic discipline, both as a profuse writer in the field and as one of the founding editors of the principal journal in the field, Environmental Ethics. He is known for his arguments for intrinsic values in nature, found at the levels of individuals, both animals and plants, species, and ecosystems. Rolston claims that these, as well as human interests, should be included in environmental ethics.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science,  religion, biography.

“Holmes Rolston, III” – Colorado State University history.   Pages 322-325 in James E. Hansen, Democracy’s University: a History of Colorado State University, 1970-2003 (Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, 2007). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37743.   Rolston has been important in Colorado State University’s strategic planning for enhanced student learning. He was the first University Distinguished Professor to be named outside the natural sciences. He has a scholarly reputation comparable to CSU’s most successful researchers and is as knowledgeable about science generally as are most such specialists.  Rolston’s classes have been characterized both by rigorous standards and by a welcoming atmosphere conducive to the thoughtful exchange of ideas.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography, Colorado State University.

“Interview with a True Green Giant.”  Holmes Rolston interviewed by David Crumm, transcript of media interview. On the program:  Explore the Spirit 468-469 (July 8-9, 2009):1-8.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37732.   Includes Part 1: “Holmes Rolston and ecology’s secret story”; and Part 2: “Holmes Rolston and the power of Psalms.”  Rolston is a true “green giant,” urging the kinds of experience people all need to share, if humans are to survive as a species. He is working to knit together a rather unlikely community of secular scientists, nature lovers, public policy experts, and people of faith. Rolston claims to do his best teaching by sneaking up on people and inviting them to get in a whole lot deeper than they previously thought possible. He is something of a mixture of Charles Darwin, the Dalai Llama, Al Gore, and Billy Graham.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.

Invited Lectures, Symposia Conducted and Related Activities, Holmes Rolston, III.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37727.   Records of universities and colleges where Holmes Rolston has given invited lectures and conducted symposia.

“Natural Thinker,” Cover story by Steve Lipsher, Denver Post Empire Magazine, June 8, 1997, cover and pages 12-15, 22.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37721.   Thirty years after he laid the foundation for environmental ethics, Holmes Rolston continues to wrestle with one of the West’s most contentious issues, bridging the human and the natural world. So revolutionary has Rolston’s work been that this spring he won an invitation to Scotland to present the prestigious Gifford Lectures, an 110-year old lecture series that has featured some of the world’s most creative and influential philosophers and scholars.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography, Gifford Lectures.

Nature, Value, Duty:  Life on Earth with Holmes Rolston, III.  Festscrift on the work of Holmes Rolston, III, edited by Christopher J. Preston and Wayne OuderkirkDordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2007).  Hardcover: ISBN 978-1-4020-4877-7.   Softcover ISBN 978-90-481-7215-3.  Also in Kindle edition.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37723.   Anthology summary, covers, table of contents.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics,  biology,  philosophy,  nature,  values, duty, Earth, biography.

Review, Saving Creation: Nature and Faith in the Life of Holmes Rolston III, by Walter Brueggemann, The Christian Century 127, no. 2 (January 26, 2010): 37-39.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37731.   Christopher Preston offers a winsome, straightforward account of Rolston’s life, bringing him the recognition and full appreciation that are appropriate for this remarkable person and his unassuaged passion for honoring and protecting creation. Preston concludes with a splendid reflection on how Rolston has managed, in a bold and imaginative way, to bring coherence to his Christian nurture and his passion for nature. Rolston has a remarkable capacity to make magnificently informed connections across the scientific data.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.

Review, Saving Creation: Nature and Faith in the Life of Holmes Rolston III, by Steven Bouma-Prediger, Interpretation 64(No. 4, October 2010):436-437. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79098. Preston engagingly tells the story of Rolston, from his childhood in the Shenandoah Mountains, to his long and distinguished career as a philosopher at Colorado State University. As the story of a human life, it is an interesting read, but along the way, Preston also adroitly interweaves the story of the rise and development of environmental ethics as an academic discipline. This is an impressive work overall. If you are interested in natural science and Christian theology, this is a book for you. If you are interested in environmental ethics, this is a book for you. Or, if you are just interested in a fascinating human story, well told, this is a book for you. Keywords: Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University, environmental ethics, science and religion, intellectual biography.

“Rolston, Holmes (1932-    ).”  Biographical article by Ann S. Causey  in Environ­mental Encyclopedia, 1st edition (Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1994), pp. 718-719.  William P. Cunningham, Terence Ball, Terence H. Cooper, Eville Gorham, Malcolm T. Hepworth, and Alfred A. Marcus, editors. 2nd edition (1998), pp. 898-899.  In Environmental Encyclopedia, Third Edition, Vol. 2, N-Z, pp. 1224-1225, Bortman, Marci, Peter Brimblecombe, Mary Ann Cunningham, William P. Cunningham, and William Freedman, eds. (Detroit: Thomson/Gale, 2003).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37717.  Rolston is the father of environmental ethics.  As such he occupies a singular place of importance in modern philosophy.  He has devoted his distinguished career to plausibly and meaningfully interpreting the natural world from a philosophical perspective and is regarded as one of the world’s leading scholars on the philosophical, scientific, and religious conceptions of nature.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.

“Rolston, Holmes.” Biographical article by Darrell J. Turner in Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004 Book of the YearChicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004), pages 92-93.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37718.  The “father of environmental ethics” has spent his life in what he calls a lover’s quarrel with science and religion. “I had to fight both theology and science to love nature,” Rolston said when he was named the recipient of the 2003 Templeton Prize for Progress Toward Research or Discoveries about Spiritual Realities. Rolston published the first article in a major philosophical journal to challenge the idea that nature is value-free and that all values stem from a human perspective.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.  Also see: Holmes Rolston III (American Philosopher and Theologian), Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2008: http://www.britannica.com/.

“Rolston, Holmes.”  Biographical article by Michael Egan in Anne Becher, ed. American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present, 2 vols. (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio, November 2000), Volume II, L-Z, pages 691-692..  New edition: (Millerton, NY: Grey House Publishing, 2008), pages 695-697.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37720.  Rolston’s 1988 book, Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World, is generally recognized as the best available work in its field. Rolston presents a strong argument for a value-centered ecological ethic. He claims that intrinsic values objectively exist at the species, biotic community, and individual levels in nature and that these values impose on humans’ obligations to species and their ecosystems.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.

“Rolston, III, Holmes (1932-).”  Biographical article by Paula J. Posas in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, Vol. 2, K-Z, pp. 1400-1401 (London and New York: Thoemmes Continuum Publishers, 2005).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37722.  Rolston is widely recognized as the “father of environmental ethics,” his writings making clear an ethics of nature, with intrinsic, instrumental, and systemic value. Ethics are for people but not only about people. Humans ought not always to put themselves first, but to put themselves in place in the biospheric community in which they reside. Only then will they become Homo sapiens, the “wise species.”  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.

Rolston publications by type.  Bibliographical listing.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37812.

Rolston publications by year.  Bibliographical listing.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38193.

Rolston’s books and articles have been used as class text materials at the following universities and colleges. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37726.

“Rolston, Holmes, III, 1932- .“  Biographical article by Philip Cafaro in J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman, eds. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, 2:211-212 (Detroit, MI: Gale, 2009).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39069.   Rolston’s forty year career at Colorado State University has been devoted to analyzing and advocating value in nature, especially the intrinsic value of nature. Such value generates an obligation to respect nature and to conserve it. Rolston further examines how this translates into environmental policy regarding endangered species, wilderness conservation, sustainable development, and corporate responsibility. In result, Rolston has become “the father of environmental ethics.” He gave the Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, was awarded the Templeton Prize in Religion, and has lectured on seven continents.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; biodiversity, conservation, consumption, environmental philosophy, contemporary philosophy, intrinsic value, instrumental value, population, preservation, sustainable development, wilderness.

Saving Creation: Nature and Faith in the Life of Holmes Rolston III. Intellectual biography by Christopher J. Preston (San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 2009).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37724.    Book description, covers, table of contents, critical notice.
Review by Steven Bouma-Prediger, Interpretation 64 (No. 4, October 2010):436-437. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79098.
Review by Walter Brueggemann, The Christian Century 127, no. 2 (January 26, 2010): 37-39. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37731.

Gifford Lectures

Archived resources – Holmes Rolston – Gifford Lectures.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37877.  Includes information on and persistent links to archived resources related to the Gifford Lectures given by Dr. Rolston at the University of Edinburgh, Academic Year 1997-1998, in November 1997.  Keywords:  Gifford Lectures, Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; philosophy professor, university distinguished professor, Colorado State University.

Genes, Genesis and God:  Values and their Origins in Natural and Human Historyhttp://hdl.handle.net/10217/37690.  Book summary, covers and table of contents.  Keywords:  science, religion, natural history.

“Genetic Creativity: Diversity and Complexity in Natural History,” Lecture 1.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37813.  1 hour, 20 minutes.   Dr. Rolston delivers the first of his lectures in the Gifford lecture series. Video recorded on November 10, 1997, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Lecture series published as: Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).  Central to the contemporary Darwinian view is emerging diversity and complexity. Genes are critical in this historic composition. In physics and chemistry, there is matter and energy, but in biology there is proactive information. Scientists divide over whether such evolution is contingent or directional. Elements of trial and error are incorporated in a searching generative process, analogous to genetic algorithms in computing.  Keywords:  genetics, human genetics, religion, Christianity, natural history, creativity, nature, ecosystems, self-organization, evolution, progress, complexity, biology.

“Genes, Genesis and God,” Lecture 10.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37814.  1 hour, 7 minutes.  Dr. Rolston delivers the last of his lectures in the Gifford lecture series.  Video recorded on December 1, 1997, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.  Lecture series published as: Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).  Humans can detect sacred presence in the epic of life. Biology leaves space for such complementary explanations. The Earth narratives must be understood in the light of the complexities to which they lead, resulting from emerging novel possibility space. God is a Generator of such possibilities. God is the Ground, Ambience of Information. The brooding winds of the Spirit move over the face of these earthen waters.  Keywords:  evolution, religion, values, Divine power, biology, genes, evolutionary ethics, genetic code.

Gifford Lectures 1: (1997/98): Genes, Genesis and God, a Series of Ten lectures by Professor Holmes Rolston. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37875.   Flyer announcing the Gifford Lectures given by Dr. Rolston at the University of Edinburgh, Academic Year 1997-1998, in November 1997.  Keywords:  Gifford Lectures, Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; philosophy professor, university distinguished professor, Colorado State University.

Gifford Lectures 2: Authors, Holmes Rolston III, 1932-  .  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37763.  Author biography of Dr. Holmes Rolston on the online Gifford Lectures database.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; philosophy professor, university distinguished professor, Colorado State University, Gifford lecturer.

Gifford Lectures 3: Over 100 Years of Renowned Lectures on Natural Theology.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37746.  The Gifford Lectures web site providing the Lectures’ history, overview, sponsoring universities, news and other related information; also including an online database to search books derived from the Lectures, lecture summaries, and lecturers’ biographies.  Keywords:  Gifford Lecture; Gifford Lectureships, lecturers.

Gifford Lectures 4: Portrait of Professor Holmes Rolston.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37873.  Portrait of Dr. Rolston at the Gifford Lectures in doctoral gown and hood.

Gifford Lectures 5: Professor Holmes Rolston Giving the Lecture “Genes, Genesis and God.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37874.  Dr. Rolston giving his last lecture in doctoral gown and hood.

“Review of Rolston, Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History” by John A. Bryant. Science and Christian Belief 12, no. 1 (April 2000): 85-86.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37214. The book is based on the author’s Gifford Lectures given at the University of Edinburgh, Nov. 1997. Dr. Rolston says the phenomena of religion and ethics cannot be reduced to the phenomena of biology. The book deals with genetic values, genetic identity, culture, science, ethics, biology and religion. Keywords:  religion, ethics, science, humans, genesis, biology, theology.  “Reading the book  …   is like listening to a long, beautifully crafted, stirring piece of music that gradually works towards a memorable finale or slowly climbing from the plains through the foothills, with views getting better and better, until one finally reaches the summit.”

“Review of Rolston, Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History” by Frederick Ferré.  International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 47, no. 3 (June 2000): 197-182. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37215.   Lord Gifford, whose bequest founded the famous Gifford Lectures more than a century ago with a mandate to advance ‘natural theology’, would be proud of this book. It constitutes the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998; and, unlike many other recent Giffords, it really does fulfill the terms of the original bequest. This fulfillment is not expressed in the traditional language that Lord Gifford would have recognized (though underneath there are still classical arguments at work), but in this volume Holmes Rolston III brings together the best of current information about nature, especially the history of this planet, with the persistent depths of classical concerns about the character of the ultimate nature of things.   Keywords: religion, ethics, science, humans, genesis, biology, theology.

 

Templeton Prize

”Our Obligations to Nature: Interview with Holmes Rolston III,” by Stacey Vanek Smith in Christian Science Monitor, March 20, 2003.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37384.  Interviewed on the occasion of his winning the Templeton Prize, Rolston recalls memorable experiences developing his ideas on the intrinsic value of nature. Preserving animals and plants as part of God’s creation. His Shenandoah Valley childhood. Struggles in nature, a cruciform creation. Watching a lioness kill a zebra as a religious experience. Rolston a cautious optimist. Wilderness areas and endangered species preserved amidst threats of global warming.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize,  philosophy professor, Colorado State University. Entire interview is available at:http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0320/p16s01-lire.html.

“’Philosopher Gone Wild’ Wins Theology Prize : $1.1 Million Award Honors Innovators in the Study of Religion and Spirituality,” by John Rivera in Baltimore Sun, March 20, 2003, sec. A, page 6A.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37390.    Holmes Rolston, III, philosopher, naturalist and self-described “philosopher gone wild,” has won the 2003 Templeton Prize. Rolston pioneered the study of environmental ethics. He has been charged by an elephant and once stared down a leopard in Africa. Rolston has quarreled with both science and religion about values in nature. He recounts a religious experience experiencing the Pasqueflower blossoming in the snow after winter in the Rockies.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Winner Will Give Prize to College: Alum Donating Rich Reward to Davidson,” by Bruce Henderson in Charlotte Observer, March 20, 2003, sec. B, page 1, page 4.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37392. As a student at Davidson College fifty years ago Holmes Rolston discovered a world of wonder at the end of a microscope. As a winner of the world’s best-known religion prize he’s ready to repay the favor. He has donated the prize to establish a chair of science and religion, the disciplines he has worked a lifetime to link.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University, Davidson College.

“’Tree Hugger’ Awarded Templeton Prize: Religion Honor Is Worth $1 Million,” by Chris Herlinger in Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 22, 2003, sec. B, page B5.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37393.   Holmes Rolston, III, a self-described “tree-hugger” and a pioneer in the burgeoning academic field, is this year’s winner of the Templeton Prize, perhaps the most prestigious award in the field of religion. Drawing on a religious tradition for a commitment to social justice, he also has been a distinctive voice in upholding the intrinsic value of nature itself, with humans part of creation but not at its center.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Colorado Professor Wins Templeton Religion Prize,” by Larry B. Stammer in Los Angeles Times, March 20, 2003, sec. B, page B8.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37395.  Holmes Rolston, III, whose explorations of faith and science have helped foster religious interest in the environment, has been awarded the 2003 Templeton Prize. Rolston has argued that humans must be seen as part of, and not apart from, the natural world. The crisis of the environment is essentially a crisis of spirit.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Lucrative Religion Prize Given: The Templeton Winner, Holmes Rolston 3d, Is Credited for his Push on Environmental Ethics,” by Jim Remsen in Philadelphia Inquirer, March 20, 2003, sec. A, page A14.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37397. Interview citing Dr. Rolston’s career and contributions to the study of nature, environmental ethics, and the relationship between science and religion. Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Blessing the Planet: Templeton Prize Winner Links Ecology to Theology,” editorial in Inquirer: Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, March 22, 2003.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37398.  The award given to Rolston is the world’s largest monetary prize for achievement in any field. Rolston, though less prominent than previous winners, has been quietly influential over a long career at the often contentious crossroads of science and religion. In nature, God is not an architect or engineer, but creates using a process in which life is perpetually perishing, perpetually regenerated.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“’Tree Hugger’ Wins $1M Spiritual Prize: Presbyterian Minister at One with Nature, Religion, Humans,” by Bob Harvey in TheOttawa Citizen, March 20, 2003.    http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37396.  A self-described “tree-hugger and canoe freak” has won the world’s richest cash award for his work establishing the field of environmental ethics. Rolston found that he had to fight both theology and science to love nature. He persuades philosophers using the language of intrinsic value in nature. He persuades the secular speaking of respect for nature, and the theologians speaking of sacred creation.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Environmentalist Wins $1m Prize: Professor Holmes Rolston III, a Philosopher Leading the International Debate on Environmental Ethics, Has Been Awarded the One-Million-Dollar Templeton Prize,” Helen Sewell reporting on BBC News, March 19, 2003.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37385.   Professor Holmes Rolston III, a philosopher leading the international debate on environmental ethics, has been awarded the one-million-dollar Templeton Prize, the world’s most lucrative annual prize given to an individual.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Rolston claims Templeton Prize.” Rolston interviewed by Robert Siegel, All Things Considered, March 19, 2003. National Public Radio (U.S.). http://www.npr.org/.    http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37608.    Interview live on All Things Considered, NPR, by Robert Siegel in the afternoon of the morning New York Press Conference, announcing the 2003 Templeton Prize laureate. Rolston wins the 2003 Templeton Prize in Religion, a well known prize often said to be the equivalent in religion of the Nobel Prize. Rolston donates the prize, about $1.3 million, to endow a chair in science and religion at Davidson College. The interview is about 5 minutes.  This URL page provides a summary of the interview and a link to the audio recording on the NPR web site.

“Holmes Rolston wins Templeton Prize.”   Audio and text, reporter James Donahower,  Archived News, March 13, 2003. Voice of America.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37609.  The winner of the $1 million-dollar Templeton Prize is a university professor credited with establishing the field of environmental ethics. Cathedrals are the treasures of Europe, but the national parks are the treasures of the United States. Most people want them on the landscape.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.  Also available at: http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/.

“Rolston, Holmes.” Biographical article by Darrell J. Turner in Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004 Book of the Year (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004), pages 92-93.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37718.  The “father of environmental ethics” has spent his life in what he calls a lover’s quarrel with science and religion. “I had to fight both theology and science to love nature,” Rolston said when he was named the recipient of the 2003 Templeton Prize for Progress Toward Research or Discoveries about Spiritual Realities. Rolston published the first article in a major philosophical journal to challenge the idea that nature is value-free and that all values stem from a human perspective.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; environmental ethics, science, religion, biography.  Also see: Holmes Rolston III (American Philosopher and Theologian), Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2008: http://www.britannica.com/.

“CSU Professor Wins Top Philosophy Prize,” by Rahaf Kalaaji in Fort Collins Coloradoan, May 14, 2003, sec. A.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37389. Holmes Rolston is recognized as the founder of environmental ethics, a prolific thinker who brought religion and nature together in unprecedented ways. He has found CSU a stimulating environment, but is still surprised at being invited to Buckingham Palace. The Templeton Prize, given by Prince Philip, is perhaps the top honor a CSU faculty member has ever received.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

Rolston Interview – CPR – Colorado Public Radio. 2003.  23 mins.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37386.
Holmes Rolston interviewed by Dan Drayer, on Colorado Matters, aired April 18, 2003, and thereafter throughout the state. Rolston, “the father of environmental ethics,” wins Templeton Prize. Rolston pleased at recognition of the conservation causes which he has been advocating. Rolston’s lover’s quarrels with science and religion. Intrinsic value in nature. Biology is value-laden. Psalm 23 portrays nature as both green pastures and the valley of the shadow of death. Rolston’s work with policy and government organizations. State of the Colorado environment in 2003.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Pastor’s Earthly Passion Honored: $1.2 Million Prize Goes to CSU Prof,” by Coleman Cornelius in Denver Post, March 20, 2003, sec. B, page 1B, 2B.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37387.  Rolston, widely known as the father of environmental ethics, hiking in the Rocky Mountains, once spotted a tundra moss he couldn’t identify. It turned out to be a rare moss. Rolston urges people to value more fully the natural world, appreciating it as divine creation. Spiritual advances can be as significant as scientific ones. His efforts have earned him the Templeton Prize in Religion.  Keywords:   Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

CSU Prof Wins Top-Notch Prize: Rolston, ‘Father of Environmental Ethics,’ Plans Trip to Buckingham Palace,” by Rebecca Jones inRocky Mountain News, March 20, 2003, sec. A, page 33A.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37391.  Interview citing Dr. Rolston’s career and contributions to the study of nature, environmental ethics, and the relationship between science and religion.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“Member-at-Large: An Interview with Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University, Templeton Prize Laureate 2003.”  Religious Studies News 18, no. 4 (October 2003): 17, 24 (American Academy of Religion). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37394.   The prize came as a big surprise to Rolston. Rolston recalls Prince Philip giving the award in Buckingham Palace. Rolston’s reasons for donating the award to establish an endowed chair in science and religion at Davidson College. Rolston’s experiences in the natural world. Four main problems on the world agenda. Living in a land of promise with milk and honey requires justice rolling down like waters.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

“The Science and Religion Dialogue: Why It Matters.” Public event sponsored by the International Society for Science and Religion, Sheraton Boston Hotel, August 19, 2004.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37482.  Rolston lecture only from three Templeton Prize laureates in an exchange across the common borders of science and theology. Moderated by Owen Gingerich, Harvard University.  Videotaped by WGBH Forum Network.   Seen in terms of their long-range personal and cultural impacts, science and religion are the two most important forces in today’s world. Science cannot teach us what we need most to know about either nature or culture: how to value it. Science increasingly opens up religious questions. The future of religion depends on the dialogue. The dialogue offers new opportunities for understanding and confronting suffering and evil. The future of Earth depends on this dialogue.  Keywords:  science, religion, nature, culture, environmental ethics, ecological ethics, values, consumption, conservation, suffering, evil.   Also in print in: “The Science and Religion Dialogue: Why It Matters.”  Pages 33-37 in Fraser Watts and Kevin Dutton, eds.,Why the Science and Religion Dialogue Matters (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2006). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37440.

A Chronicle: Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, 2003 Templeton Prize Laureate.  Brochure recording Templeton Prize events.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37551.  New York Press Conference, March 19, 2004, United Nations Church Center — Presentation of Holmes Rolston by Jack Templeton and Rolston response — London, Buckingham Palace, May 7, 2003, Prince Philip presents the prize to Rolston — Rolston press statement and John Polkinghorne response — Templeton Prize judges and previous laureates.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, religion prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

Templeton Prize: For Progress toward Research or Discoveries about Spiritual Realities (West Conshohocken, PA: John Templeton Foundation, 2003. 2004).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37484.  Templeton Prize brochure.  Includes information on the prize; and quotes, biographies and photographs of laureates 2004, 2003, 2002 and 1999. Dr. Rolston’s quote: “Facing the new millennium, the four principal, interrelated challenges are war and peace, population, development, and environment. Science alone doesn’t teach us what we most need to know about any of the four.”  Keywords:  Templeton Prize, religion prize, monetary award, laureates, winners.

“The Nature of Things: Using the Earth with Justice and Charity,” by Meg Kimmel in Davidson Journal 32 (Summer 2003), 5 pages. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37704.  Davidson College alumni journal story on Holmes Rolston winning the Templeton Prize and donating it to endow a chair in science and religion there. Holmes Rolston says he has spent his life in a lover’s quarrel, not with his wife of four decades, but with the two disciplines he most loves: science and religion. Rolston recalls the influence of Davidson experiences in forming his career.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University, Davidson College.

“Holmes Rolston III Wins 2003 Templeton Prize,” by Donald Lehr, Archived News, March 19, 2003. The Templeton Prize.http://www.templetonprize.org/http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37483.  Rolston’s career of thirty years spans an integration of science and religion and also his founding of environmental ethics, where he is known as “the father of environmental ethics.” He joins these two by arguing that a conservation ethics must be founded on faith in the goodness of creation, also discovered in evolutionary and ecological sciences. Prince Philip will award the prize in Buckingham Palace on May 7, 2003.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

Rolston – Australian Radio National – Spirit of Things 2003.  39 minutes. Holmes Rolston interviewed on Australian Radio National, “The Spirit of Things.” Interviewer Rachael Kohn. Aired December 14, 2003. Rebroadcast December 18, 2003.  Both audio and transcript.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37486.  Science and religion distinct?  Partly true, like law and poetry, but science and religion can also overlap and be in dialogue. Science leaves value judgments as sharp and painful as ever. Biblical prophets said the land flows with milk and honey only if there is justice and love, a truth for today.
Richard Dawkins finds humans full of selfish genes. Rolston prefers to say that genes are self-actualizing, which is to defend the intrinsic value of their kind. Charles Birch, Australian biologist, celebrates life, and, as an ecologist, finds adapted fit, rather than selfish genes. Precursors of morality in animals? But only humans critically reflect about their morals: the rich versus the poor, abortion, justice and fairness. Rolston has quarreled with both science and religion for not finding intrinsic values in nature. Rolston has a notorious article advocating shooting poachers in Africa and keeping poor farmers’ cattle off tiger sanctuaries in Nepal. Sacrificing the rhinos and tigers is only a short-term solution. Deeper problems are escalating population, widening gap between rich and poor, equitable distribution of food from already occupied lands. Cutting U. S. old-growth forests would give loggers jobs for only ten years. One ought to fix a problem in the right place.
Rolston recalls receiving the prize in Buckingham Palace, being a millionaire six hours, then giving it to endow a chair in science and religion at Davidson College, his alma mater. Riding horseback in Montana, finding gorillas and chimps in Africa, thinking about the three most advanced primates and their differences.

“Holmes Rolston, III, Professorship in Religion and Science,” photograph taken at Davidson College at the inauguration of Andrew Lustig, first to occupy the chair endowed by Holmes Rolston with his Templeton Prize monetary award, March 27, 2007.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37705.   Left to Right: Bobby Vagt (President, Davidson College), Holmes Rolston, Andrew Lustig.

“News Coverage Summary: Dr. Holmes Rolston III Awarded the 2003 Templeton Prize,” compiled by Brad Bohlander and Tom Milligan, Colorado State University. University Relations Department.  Media and Community Relations.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37388.  Additional newspapers, radio, news coverage summary, Dr. Holmes Rolston, III, awarded the Templeton Prize.   Associated Press, 202 newspapers, circulation 15 million. Gannett News Service, 14 newspapers, circulation 740,000. Religious News Service, newspapers with circulation 870,000. United Kingdom and International Circulation, 1.7 million. NPR All Things Considered, listening audience 12 million.  Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ; Templeton Prize, philosophy professor, Colorado State University.

 

Photographs of Templeton Prize events.

 

Mendel Medal

Villanova University awarded Holmes Rolston the Mendel Medal on April 2, 2005.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37733.  The Medal is given primarily to scientists to recognize their outstanding contributions to genetics and to science more generally with concern for the ethical and religious dimensions of their research.   Includes text of background information on the Medal, image of the Medal certificate, and photographs of Dr. Rolston receiving the Medal from Villanova University President Edmund J. Dobbin and giving speech at awards banquet.  Keywords:   Rolston, Holmes, 1932- , philosophy professor, Colorado State University,  Mendel Medal, Villanova University, award.  Visit the Mendel Medal websitehttp://www.villanova.edu/artsci/college/about/awards/mendelmedal/ for more information.

 

Environmental Ethics: Books

 

A New Environmental Ethics: The Next Millennium for Life on Earth  (New York: Routledge, 2012). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46014.   Description, covers, and table of contents.

Conserving Natural Value (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37692.   Description, covers, table of contents, and published critical notice.  Also published in electronic format by Columbia University Press Online Books, 1997.
Chapters 6 and 7, translated into German:  “Eine Ethik für den gesamten Planten: Gedanken über den Eigenwert der Natur,”  Naturund Kultur: Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 7(no. 2, 2006):24-40.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41097.

Environmental Ethics: An Anthology.  Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd,, 2003.  Edited by Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37693.  Description, covers, book summary.

Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988,  Paper edition, 1989).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37694.  Description, covers, table of contents, and published critical notice.
Chinese translation (Taiwan): Huanjing lunlixue: Dui ziranjie de yiwu yü ziranjie de jiazhi (Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World), translated by Wang Ruixiang and edited by Huang Daolin (Taipei, Taiwan: National Institute for Compilation and Translation, 1996)  ISBN 957-00-8564-9.  Second Chinese translation (P.R. China):  Huanjing Lunli xue: Daziran de jiazhi yiji ren dui daziran de yiwu) (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press [Zhongguo Shehui kexue Chuban she], 2000).  ISBN 7-5004-2743-3.  In a book series Waiguo Lunlixue Mingshu Yicong (Western Masterpieces in Ethics, Translation Series). Translated by Yang Tongjin, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Reprint from Chapter 4, “Duties to Endangered Species.”  Pages 314-325 in Christine Pierce and Donald VanDe Veer, eds.,People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees: Basic Issues in Environmental Ethics, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1995).Reprint from Chapter 6, “The Concept of Natural Value” as “Valuing the Environment.”  Pages 208-211 in Mark J. Smith, ed.,Thinking Through the Environment: A Reader (London: Routledge, 1999).  Reprint from Chapter 8,  as  “Environmental Business: An Ethic for Commerce,” pages 148-170 in Dale Westphal and Fred Westphal, eds., Planet in Peril: Essays in Environmental Ethics (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1994).

Philosophy Gone Wild (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1986,  Paper edition 1989).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37695.  Anthology of Rolston’s articles in environmental ethics.  Description, covers, contents, and critical notice.
Chinese translation, Zhexue Zou xiang huangye [Philosophy Gone Wild] by Liu Er and Ye Ping, Green Classical Library, Jilin: Julin renmin chubanshe (Jilin People’s Publishing House), 2000.  Authorized translation by Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.  ISBN 7-206-02818-7.  Library of Congress:  QH540.5 R6512 2000.

 

Environmental Ethics: Anthologies & Journal Articles

 

“A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management,” co-authored with James Coufal, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, Journal of Forestry 89(no. 4, 1991):35-40.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37606.     The Society of American Foresters (SAF) has long had an ethic of using forests to benefit society. Now many foresters, prompted by Aldo Leopold and his land ethic, are wondering if SAF does not need a forest ethic, respecting the integrity of natural systems, to complement its ethic for society. Forests are communities as well as commodities. Forest management ought to expand from an ethical of multiple use to one of protecting multiple values found in forests. Keywords: environmental ethics, forest management. forests and forestry,moral aspects, ethical aspects.

“A Hinge Point of History.” Pages 70-74 in Kathleen Dean Moore and Michael P. Nelson, eds., Moral Ground: Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril. San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48075.   We live at a change of epochs.  We enter a new era: the Anthropocene.  From this point on, culture more than nature is the principal determinant of Earth’s future.  We are passing into a century when this will be increasingly obvious and this puts us at a hinge point of history. For some this is cause for congratulation, the fulfillment of our destiny as a species. For others this is cause for concern. We worried throughout much of the past century that humans would destroy themselves in interhuman conflict. The worry for the next century is that if our present heading is uncorrected, humans may ruin their planet and themselves along with it. Paradoxes and challenges confront and confound us in this new era. Although we congratulate ourselves on our powers, perhaps humans are not well equipped to manage the sorts of global-level problems we face. And yet, this wonderland Earth is a planet with promise. If we are to realize the abundant life for all time, both policy and ethics must enlarge the scope of concern, Keywords: Anthropocene epoch, culture and nature, end of nature, managed nature. environmental crisis, sustainability, sustainable biosphere. wonderland Earth.

“A Managed Earth and the End of Nature?” Pages 143-164 in Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino, Lester Embree, and Don E. Marietta, eds. The Philosophies of Environment and Technology, vol. 18 of Research in Philosophy of Technology (Stamford, CT: JAI Press, 1999). ISBN 0-7623-0439-1.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37601. Humans increasingly see themselves as the planetary mangers. Perhaps nature is at an end? Natural history has been overtaken by human engineering. Others seek a revised account by which human activity is, or should be, natural. The ideal of nature, absent humans, ought to be replaced with an ideal in which the human presence is also natural. A postmodern claim is that nature always wears for us a human face. But nature neither is, or ought to be, ended. Humans belong on Earth, but nature ought also be an end in itself. Keywords: development. environment, war, peace, population,,environmental ethics, management, nature, wildness.

“Aesthetic Experience in Forests,” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56(1998):157-166. Invited address at The Aesthetics of the Forest, Second International Conference on Landscape Aesthetics, Lusto, Punkaharju, Finland, June 10-13, 1996.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/35650.  Forests are aesthetically challenging because of the sense of deep time, experiencing an archetype of creation. Forests are both perennial and dynamic. Appropriate aesthetic encounter requires knowledge of scientific natural history, necessary though not sufficient for intense, multisensory, participatory engagement when persons, immersed in forests, live their aesthetic experiences. Forests, although naturalized, are experienced as sublime, evoking the sense of the sacred. Aesthetic appreciation in forests radically differs from that appropriate for artworks.    Keywords: forests, archetype, humans, scientific appreciation, aesthetic engagement, sublime.

“Aesthetics in the Swamps,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (University of Chicago; Johns Hopkins University) 43(2000):584-597.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36762.    Wetlands are misunderstood landscapes, typically experienced negatively as swamps, sloughs, and mires. Understanding wetlands ecology, knowledge of specialized flora there, their unusual adaptations, and their diversity can enrich aesthetic appreciation of these landscapes. Aesthetic experiences include a sense of the primeval, admiration for ingenious and odd solutions to the challenges of wetlands living, of life persisting in the midst of its perpetual perishing. Keywords: muskegs, wetland ecosystems, swamps, survival, wetland ecology.
Also published in Finnish: “Soiden estethkan ekologinen perusta (Aesthetics in the Swamps).”  Pages 43-57 in Kirsi Hakala, ed., Suo on kaunis ( The Aesthetics of Bogs and Peatlands ) (Helsinki: Maahenki Oy, 1999).  ISBN 952-5328-01-5.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37209.

“After Preservation? Dynamic Nature in the Anthropocene,” in Ben A. Minteer and Stephen J. Pyne, eds., After Preservation: Saving American Nature in the Age of Humans (University of Chicago Press, 2015) pages 32-40, 202-203. We have entered the first century in 45 million centuries of life on Earth in which one species can jeopardize the planet’s future. We need to figure, perhaps re-figure conservation in this novel future in which we celebrate a new epoch and name it after ourselves. Available online at:http://hdl.handle.net/10217/89528.

“Annotated Bibliography” (in Environmental Ethics and Philosopy). Volume 2, pages 507-514 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, editors, J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale, 2009).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38985.     Annotated Bibliography with sections: 1. Reference works 2. Systematic overviews 3. Collected essays of a single author 4. Anthology overviews, collected essays by multiple authors, textbooks 5. Case Studies 6. Animals and environmental ethics 7. Biodiversity, wilderness, restoration, aesthetics 8. Environmental justice, environmental virtue ethics 9. Religion and nature 10. Ecofeminism 11. Sustainability, future generations 12. Global environmental ethics, climate change. Keywords: environmental ethics, bibliography.

“Antarctica.” Volume 1, pages 53-58 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, editors, J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale, 2009).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38984.    Antarctica, the seventh continent, is anomalous, compared with the six inhabited continents. The usual concerns of environmental ethics on other continents fail without sustainable development, or ecosystems for a “land ethic,” or even familiar terrestrial fauna and flora. A political Antarctic regime developed policy with a deepening ethical sensitivity over the second half of the last century remarkably exemplified in the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol) at the end of the century, protecting “the intrinsic value of Antarctica,” though puzzles remain about how to value Antarctica.   Keywords:  Antarctica, environmental ethics, land ethic, value, values.

“Are Values in Nature Subjective or Objective?” Environmental Ethics 4(1982):125-151. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36776.  There is also an original issue copy in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1982.   Also published in Robert Elliot and Arran Gare, Environmental Philosophy (St. Lucia, New York, London: University of Queensland Press and University Park, PA and London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983).   Prevailing accounts of natural values as the subjective response of the human mind are reviewed and contested. Discoveries in the physical sciences tempt us to strip the reality away from many native-range qualities, including values, but discoveries in the biological sciences counterbalance this by finding sophisticated structures and selective processes in earthen nature. On the one hand, all human knowing and valuing contain subjective components, being theory-laden. On the other hand, in ordinary natural affairs, in scientific knowing, and in valuing, we achieve some objective knowing of the world, agreeably with and mediated by the subjective coefficient. An ecological model of valuing is proposed, which is set in an evolutionary context. Natural value in its relation to consciousness is examined as an epiphenomenon, an echo, an emergent, an entrance, and an education, with emphasis on the latter categories. An account of intrinsic and instrumental natural value is related both to natural objects, life forms and land forms, and to experiencing subjects, extending the ecological model. Ethical imperatives follow from this redescription of natural value and the valuing process.   Keywords:   value of nature, valuation, objectivists. subjectivists.

“Arvot luonnossa [Values in Nature]” In Finnish. in Markku Oksanen and Marjo Rauhala-Hayes, eds., Ympäristöfilosofia: Kirjoituksia ympäristönsuojelun eettisistä perusteista (Environmental Philosophy: Critical Sources in Environmental Theory and Ethics (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, Oy Yliopistokustannus, Finnish University Press, 1997), pages 205-224.    http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37708.   Nature is examined as a carrier of values. Ten areas of values are recognized: (1) economic value, (2) life support value, (3) recreational value, (4) scientific value, (5) aesthetic value, (6) life value, (7) diversity and unity values, (8) stability and spontaneity values, (9) dialectical value, and (10) sacramental value. Each is analyzed and illustrated with particular reference to the objective precursors of value described by natural science. Keywords:   value in nature, valuation, wilderness, valuational education.

“Beauty and the Beast: Aesthetic Appreciation of Wildlife,” in Daniel J. Decker and Gary R. Goff, Valuing Wildlife Resources: Economic and Social Perspectives (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987), pp. 187-207. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37182.   Wild lives are valued aesthetically in diverse ways: (1) Wild lives are spontaneous form in motion, appealing to human emotions. (2) They are kindred yet alien sentient life. (3) They struggle to make the potential actual. (4) Wild lives are taken up as symbols in the culture that humans overlay on the natural world. Keywords:  wildlife conservation, wildlife management, animals, civilization, economics, aesthetics, culture.

“Beyond Recreational Value: The Greater Outdoors,” in Laura B. Szwak, ed., Americans Outdoors: A Literature Review (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1987) Values and Benefits section, pages 103-113.  Paper commissioned by President’s Commission on Americans Outdoors. There is a copy of the book in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1987.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37182.    Wild lives are valued aesthetically in diverse ways:  (1) Wild lives are spontaneous form in motion, appealing to human emotions.  (2) They are kindred yet alien sentient life.  (3) They struggle to make the potential actual.  (4) Wild lives are taken up as symbols in the culture that humans overlay on the natural world.   Keywords: wildlife conservation, wildlife management, animals, civilization, economics, aesthetics, culture.

“Biology and Philosophy in Yellowstone,” Biology and Philosophy 5(1990):241-258. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36774.     Yellowstone National Park poses critical issues in biology and philosophy. Among these are (1) how to value nature, especially at the ecosystem level, and whether to let nature take its course or employ hands-on scientific management; (2) the meaning of “natural” as this operates in park policy; (3) establishing biological claims on the scale of regional systems; (4) the interplay of natural and cultural history, involving both native and European Americans; (5) and sociopolitical forces as determinants in biological discovery. Alston Chase’s strident Playing God in Yellowstone is criticized and used as a test of David Hull’s naturalistic philosophy of biology. Biology and philosophy in Yellowstone ought to combine for an appropriate environmental ethic. Keywords: Yellowstone, valuing nature, natural regulation, ecosystem analysis , natural resource policy, national parks, philosophy of biology, environmental ethics.  Also published in Susan Armstrong and Richard Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Convergence and Divergence (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), pages 28-38.

“Biophilia, Selfish Genes, Shared Values.”  Pages 381-414 in Stephen R. Kellert and Edward O. Wilson, eds., The Biophilia Hypothesis: A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Washington: Island Press, 1993). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39367.   Two central features of Edward O. Wilson’s work are selfish genes and biophilia. A biophilia ethics is based in a love for all forms of life, so the chief exponent of selfish genes reaches toward a more comprehensive ethics, one even including ants. Thereby comes the puzzle. Can we get biophilia out of selfish genes? The analysis here proposes a theory that both better describes what is going on and better prescribes what ought to be. By a series of ever more extensive hookups we weave the selfish genes into global natural history. Philosophically speaking, this is a study in integration and identity in natural history. Keywords: biophilia, selfish genes, respect for nature, shared values, natural history.

“Booknotes,” January 2010. Anthony O’Hear Review of Christopher J. Preston, Saving Creation: Nature and Faith in the Life of Holmes Rolston, III. Philosophy (London, England) 85 (2010): 141-142. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39002. Keywords: Holmes Rolston, III; environmental ethics, religion and nature.

“Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?” Environmental Ethics 1(1979):7-30. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36777.  “Nature knows best” is reconsidered from an ecological perspective which suggests that we ought to follow nature. The phrase “follow nature” has many meanings. In an absolute law-of-nature sense, persons invariably and necessarily act in accordance with natural laws, and thus cannot but follow nature. In an artifactual sense, all deliberate human conduct is viewed as unnatural, and thus it is impossible to follow nature. As a result, the answer to the question, whether we can and ought to follow nature, must be sought in a relative sense according to which human conduct is sometimes more and sometimes less natural.
Four specific relative senses are examined: a homeostatic sense, an imitative ethical sense, an axiological sense, and a tutorial sense. Nature can be followed in a homeostatic sense in which human conduct utilizes natural laws for our well-being in a stable environment, but this following is nonmoral since the moral elements can be separated from it. Nature cannot be followed in an imitative ethical sense because nature itself is either amoral or, by some accounts, immoral. Guidance for inter-human ethical conduct, therefore, must be sought not in nature, but in human culture. Nevertheless, in an axiological sense, persons can and ought to follow nature by viewing it as an object of orienting interest and value.
In this connection, three environments are distinguished for human well-being in which we can and ought to participate-the urban, the rural, and the wild. Finally, in a tutorial sense, persons can and ought to follow nature by letting it teach us something of our human role, our place, and our appropriate character in the natural system as a whole. In this last sense, “following nature” is commended to anyone who seeks in his human conduct to maintain a good fit with the natural environment-a sense of following nature involving both efficiency and wisdom.   Keywords: ecology, ecosystems, Mother Nature, conformity to nature, laws of nature.  There is an original issue filed in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives.
In German translation as:  “Können und sollen wir der Natur folgen?”  Pages 242-285 in Dieter Birnbacher, ed., Ökophilosophie(Ditzingen, Germany: Philipp Reclam jun. Stuttgart, Reclams Universal-Bibliothek, 1997).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37207.

“Can the East Help the West to Value Nature?” Philosophy East and West 37(1987):172-190.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41094 .  There is also a copy of the original issue in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1985.  Eastern religion mixes uncertainly with Western science. It is doubtful whether Taoist and Buddhist views can be successfully exported to value the nature described by evolutionary ecoscience or to prescribe values for technological science. Specifically examined are the relations between karma, reincarnation, and biological value; binary complementarity and evolutionary nature; nondual union and biological integrity; and nirvana, emptiness, and extinction. The eastern categories fail to provide significant orientation in specific western environmental decisions. Keywords: Taoism, Buddhism, nature, science, ecology, evolution, nonduality, nirvana, emptiness, karma, extinction , values in nature, historical nature.

“Care on Earth: Generating Informed Concern,” in Paul Davies and Niels Henrik Gregersen, eds., Information and the Nature of Reality: From Physics to Metaphysics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pages 204-245.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39368.   Generating beings that can care requires much complexity. DNA is best interpreted as a cybernetic process that selects for caring. In spontaneous wild nature, the processes that generate such concern have locally a narrow focus, self-survival of the organism. More inclusively, these processes generate ecosystemic networks in which life is elaborated in richness in biodiversity and biocomplexity, elaborated forms of caring. In humans, this focus is exceeded with more inclusive forms of caring. Such wider vision requires a complex brain that can, with a theory of mind, evaluate others with concern for their integrity. Humans, alone on the planet, can take a transcending overview of the whole–and care for life on Earth. The sciences trace the evolution of such escalating concern, but more complete explanations requires metaphysical and theological perspectives.    Keywords:  complexity, cybernetics, information, DNA, caring, biodiversity, biocomplexity, theory of mind, teaching, evolutionary natural history, science and religion.

“Caring for Nature: From Fact to Value, from Respect to Reverence,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 39(no. 2, 2004):277-302.   Invited Templeton Lecture, American Academy of Religion Annual Meeting, November 23, 2003, Atlanta, GA.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39368.     Generating beings that can care requires much complexity. DNA is best interpreted as a cybernetic process that selects for caring. In spontaneous wild nature, the processes that generate such concern have locally a narrow focus, self-survival of the organism. More inclusively, these processes generate ecosystemic networks in which life is elaborated in richness in biodiversity and biocomplexity, elaborated forms of caring. In humans, this focus is exceeded with more inclusive forms of caring. Such wider vision requires a complex brain that can, with a theory of mind, evaluate others with concern for their integrity. Humans, alone on the planet, can take a transcending overview of the whole–and care for life on Earth. The sciences trace the evolution of such escalating concern, but more complete explanations requires metaphysical and theological perspectives.    Keywords: complexity, cybernetics, information, DNA, caring, biodiversity, biocomplexity, theory of mind, teaching, evolutionary natural history, science and religion.

“Caring for Nature: What Science and Economics Can’t Teach Us but Religion Can,” Environmental Values 15(2006):307-313.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37211.    Neither ecologists nor economists can teach us what we most need to know about nature: how to value it. The Hebrew prophets claimed that there can be no intelligent human ecology except as people learn to use land justly and charitably. Lands do not flow with milk and honey for all unless and until justice rolls down like waters. What kind of planet ought we humans wish to have? One we resourcefully manage for our benefits? Or one we hold in loving care? Science and economics can’t teach us that; perhaps religion and ethics can. Keywords: environmental justice, human ecology, sustainable development, sustainable biosphere, caring for creation, religion, ecology.

“Celestial Aesthetics: Over our Heads and/or in our Heads? Theology and Science 9(2011):273-285.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/45062.   Looking at the night sky, we may seem cosmic dwarfs, overwhelmed with a sense of otherness, abyss. But humans alone enjoy such celestial awe. We can move to a sense of the beholder’s celestial ancestry and ongoing relatedness in “our cosmic habitat.” That account joins aesthetics with mathematics, finds dramatic inter­relationships gathered under “the anthropic principle,” and considers meteorological aesthetics. The wonder is as much this Homo sapiens with mind enough to search the universe. What is out there is inseparably linked with what is down here. We are at home in the universe. The glory is both over our heads and in our heads.   Keywords: aesthetics, cosmology, mathematics, clouds, meteorology, cosmic dwarfs, human uniqueness.  Translated into Finnish: “Taivas päämme: Yllä ja päässämme,” pages 162-177 in Yrjö Sepänmaa, Liisa Heikkilä-Palo, and Virpi Kaukio, eds., Korkea taivas [High Sky]. (Helsinki: Maahenki Oy, 2012).

“Challenges in Environmental Ethics.” Pages 135-157 in Michael E. Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John Clark, eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.  Reprinted, 2nd, 3rd, 4th eds. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37448.  Environmental ethics is an invitation to moral development. Respect for human life is only a subset of respect for all life. What ethics is about is seeing outside your own sector of self-interest, of class interest. A comprehensive ethic will find values in and duties to the natural world. The vitality of ethics depends on our knowing what is really vital, and there will be found the intersection of value and duty. An ecological conscience requires an unprecedented mix of science and conscience, of biology and ethics.   Keywords: environmental ethics, humans, culture, science, nature, ecological conscience, organisms, species, ecosystems, value theory.

“Civic Law and Natural Value: Enforcing Environmental Ethics,”   Environmental Law News, Special Yosemite Commemorative Issue, October 2011, pp. 23-28. Publication of the Environmental Law Section of the State Bar of California. The State Bar of California, Environmental Law Section, 180 Howard Street, San Francisco, CA 94105-1639. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48102.    See also: http://environmental.calbar.ca.gov.    How far can and ought environmental values can be protected and enforced by legislation? Environmental regulation extends from Acts of Congress to lighting campfires and enforcement is widespread. The environment is a commons and this necessitates a public ethic where humans have benefits and harms at stake and must act in concert for protection. Environmental legislation can and ought protect animals, species, and ecosystems as well as humans–sometimes ever defending these against basic human interests. Keywords: environmental ethics, law, legislation, policy, enforcement, wilderness, public good, natural values, regulation, human rights, responsibility, nature.   See also: “Enforcing Environmental Ethics: Civic Law and Natural Value.” Pages 349-369 in James P. Sterba, ed., Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives. London: Routledge, 2001.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37603.

“Community: Ecological and Ecumenical,” The Iliff Review 30(1973):3-14 (Iliff Theological Seminary, Denver).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40509.  Analysis of the inter-relations of theology and ecology.  The era of ecology brings a vision of one world environmentally. The ecumenical movement hopes for a community and dialogue of faiths. Both have a common etymological root in the Greek word “oikos,” household. These two contemporary concerns, one in science, one in religion, offer the possibility of a more comprehensive sense of community. In the Bible, the earliest sin is ecological, humans despise their garden earth, and the sin of brother against brother follows. Our charge is to live on earth and keep it. Keeping Eden requires that we be our brother’s keeper.

“Consciousness, Environmental Ethics and Science-Religion Dialogue.” Rolston interviewed by T. D. Singh and J. N. Srivastava, on the occasion of his winning the Templeton Prize (2003). In Savijñānam (Journal of the Bhaktivedanta Institute), theme issue: Scientific Exploration for a Spiritual Paradigm, vol. 8 (2013)1-18 (Calcutta, India). Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/89527

“Converging versus Reconstituting Environmental Ethics.”  Pages 97-117 in Ben A. Minteer, ed., Nature in Common: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37187.   Evaluation of Bryan G. Norton’s “convergence hypothesis.”  Bryan Norton’s “convergence” initially implies starting from differing points and reaching the same state, as with convergent evolution. The convergence of anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism comes by Norton’s drawing back from any intrinsic value in nature. Yet his ever more enlightened anthropocentric goals come increasingly to coincide with what nonanthropocentrists also desire. This is reconstituting environmental ethics. He can win only by moving the goal posts.

“Creation and Recreation: Environmental Benefits and Human Leisure.” Pages 393-403 in B. L. Driver, Perry J. Brown, and George L. Peterson, eds., Benefits of Leisure (State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc., 1991).    http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40510.  The way in which nature based recreation and preservation are inseparably entwined is suggested by the word creation embedded in the word recreation. We cannot live by leisure alone. But labor, industry, and business form only a part of our manifold human relations with nature. Nature as resource to work on should not preempt entirely these other relations that are also important. At work, one needs to be in the black, but at such leisure, one knows that the most important color on Earth is green. Natural wonders keep human life wonder full when humans keep a world full of such wonders, when the recreation also brings contact with the creation.  Keywords: creation and recreation, environmental benefits and human leisure, outdoor recreation, creation, leisure, natural wonders, values in nature, non-economic value.  This article results from participation in a U.S. Forest Service symposium on the benefits of outdoor recreation, Snowbird, Utah, May, 1989.

“Creation: God and Endangered Species.”  Pages 47-60 in Ke Chung Kim and Robert D. Weaver, eds., Biodiversity and Landscapes(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37457.   Species have evolved from an evolutionary point of view, but by contemporary religious conviction, life is sacred and species exist with a divinely authorized claim to life, which ought to be respected by humans, the overseers of creation. Human-caused extinctions shut down the creative processes. Human dominion over the Earth is constrained by the inherent goodness in and value of creation. Extinction of species is ungodly. Such religious convictions can be an effective force in conservation biology.   Keywords:  religious value, God Committee, Endangered Species Act, conservation, biodiversity, environmental ethics, Earth, biology, theology, perpetual perishing.

“Disvalues in Nature,” The Monist 75(1992):250-278.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36773   Judgments from fact to disvalue are often made about nature. If natural things just are, absent value, such judgments commit a negative naturalistic fallacy. By parity of reasoning, those who find objective disvalue must also consider objective value. Numerous candidate disvalues are examined: predation, parasitism, selfishness, randomness, blindness, disaster, indifference, waste, struggle, suffering, death. Such disvalues are embedded in a larger systemic value and joined with values equally present, opposites in conflict and resolution. Keywords:  disvalues, values, values in nature, evaluation.  There is a copy in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives.   Reprinted in Andrew Brennan, ed., The Ethics of the Environment (Aldershot, Hampshire, U.K.: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1995), pages 87-115.

“Does Aesthetic Appreciation of Landscapes Need to be Science-Based?” British Journal of Aesthetics 35(1995):374-386.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36761.  Forests are aesthetically challenging because of a perennial, dynamic sense of deep time, experiencing an archetype of creation. Scientific appreciation of natural history is necessary though not sufficient for an intense, multisensory, participatory engagement when persons, immersed in forests, constitute their lived aesthetic experiences. Forests are sublime, evoking the sense of the sacred. Aesthetic appreciation in forests radically differs from that appropriate for artworks.   Address at “Meeting in the Landscape,” the First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics,” Koli, Finland, June 1994.  Reprinted, translated into Finnish, “Onko maisemien esteettisen arvioinnin pohjattava teiteeseen?” pp. 80-91 in Yrjö Sepänmaa, Liisa Heikkilä-Palo and Virpi Kaukio, eds., Maiseman kanssa kasvokkain (Looking toward the Landscape) (Helsinki: Maahenki Oy, 2007). ISBN: 978-952-5652-02-4. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37119.   Reprinted in Joseph DesJardins, ed., Environmental Ethics: Concepts, Policy, Theory (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1999), pages 164-171.  An abbreviated media version is: Does Aesthethic Appreciation of Nature Need to be Science-Based? DVD. 22 minutes. Interview with Holmes Rolston III conducted by Christopher Stevens, University of Helsinki, March 25, 2009.  Online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37809.

“Does Nature Need To Be Redeemed?” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 29(1994):205-229.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36766.   In the light of evolutionary biology, the biblical idea that nature fell with the coming of human sin is incredible. Biblical writers, classical theologians, and contemporary biologists are ambivalent about nature, finding in natural history both a remarkable genesis of life and also much travail and suffering. Earth is a land of promise, and there is the conservation, or redemption, of life in the midst of its perpetual perishing. Life is perennially a struggling through to something higher. In that sense even natural history is cruciform, though human sinfulness introduces novel tragedy. Humans now threaten creation; nature is at more peril than ever before.  Keywords: conservation of nature, creation, ecological crisis, evolution, natural evils, nature, redemption, sin, suffering, wildness. Also in Horizons in Biblical Theology 14 (no. 2, 1993):143-172.  Plenary address at Conference on “Creation, Ecology, and Ethics,” Chicago, October 1992.   Also invited address at American Academy of Religion, National Meeting, San Francisco, November 1992.   Reprinted in Charles Taliaferro and Paul J. Griffiths, eds., Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003), pages 530-543.

“Dominion,” entry in Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Volume 1, The Spirit of Sustainability, ed. Willis Jenkins (Great Barrington, Mass: Berkshire Publishing Group, 2010), pp.110-111.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38370.  That humans have dominion over the Earth, a claim of Abrahamic faiths, has been interpreted as the cause of the contemporary ecological crisis. Other interpretations emphasize that stewardship of the Earth is included in the idea of appropriate dominion. Humans may choose to be conquerors, gardeners, developers, trustees, or caretakers. Keywords:  humans. dominion, the Earth, nature, Abrahamic religions, ecological crisis.

“Down to Earth: Persons in Place in Natural History.” Pages 285-296 in Andrew Light and Jonathan M. Smith, eds., Philosophy and Geography III: Philosophies of Place (Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield, 1998).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48070.  On Earth living things have home territories. Biology, the logic of life, is always historical or “geographical,” graphed out as world lines by embodied beings emplaced in Earth’s natural history. Cultural history brings radical innovations. Modern humans do not live in niches in ecosystems; culture and agriculture, industry and technology transform those dependencies. Still, life remains storied residence on landscapes, where culture is, or ought to be, in harmony with nature. Humans can stand apart from the world and consider themselves in relation to it. An earth ethics ought to discover a global obligation to the whole inhabited planet. Keywords: historical biology, geographical biology, natural history, ecosystem niches, culture, agriculture, harmony with nature, humans part of nature, humans apart from nature, earth ethics, global ethics.

“Duties to Ecosystems.” Pages 246-274 in J. Baird Callicott, ed., Companion to a Sand County Almanac (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46009.    Aldo Leopold finds that an ecosystem is a biotic community. Moreover, moving from what is the case to what ought to be, Leopold argues a land ethic, duties toward ecosystems. Ecologists have sometimes held that ecosystems are superorganisms, sometimes only loose aggregations of plants and animals. Philosophers sometimes hold that ecosystems are beyond moral consideration, since they have no preferences and have no felt experience. But perhaps ethics needs to become more comprehensive, with respect and love for ecosystemic integrity, stability, and beauty. Can a community per se count morally? Duties to other humans remain all they have ever been, but “the land” now counts too. Keywords: ecosystems , duties, values in nature, Aldo Leopold.

“Duties to Endangered Species,” BioScience 35(1985):718-726.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37103.    Neither scientists nor ethicists have realized how concern for endangered species requires an unprecedented mix of biology and ethics. The usual approach says that there are only duties to other persons concerning species. Species are resources, rivets in ecosystems, a Rosetta stone for natural history. Direct duties to species requires analysis of what a species is, a dynamic life form, which the individual inherits, instantiates, and passes on. The wrong that humans are doing is stopping the historical flow in which the vitality of life is laid. Keywords:   Endangered Species Act, biological science, ethics, conservation, altruism, ecosystems.   Variously reprinted, including:  Pages 314-325 in Christine Pierce and Donald VanDe Veer, eds., People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees:Basic Issues in Environmental Ethics, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1995);  pages 60-75 in Robert Elliot, ed., Environmental Ethics, Oxford Readings in Philosophy Series (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995);  pages 77-85 in Andrew Brennan, ed., The Ethics of the Environment(Aldershot, Hampshire, U.K.: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1995), ;  vol. 4, pages 263-277 in J. Baird Callicott and Clare Palmer, eds.,Environmental Philosophy: Critical Concepts in the Environment (London: Routledge, 2005); David Clowney and Patricia Mosto, eds.,Earthcare: An Anthology in Environmental Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009), pp. 532-543, and others.

“Duties to Endangered Species.”   Volume 1, pages 517-528 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology, 4 vols. (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1995).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37602.   Whether humans have duties to endangered species is a significant theoretical and an urgent practical question. Few doubt that we have some obligations concerning species. But these might be all obligations to persons benefitted or harmed by species as resources. Is there a human duty directly to species, additionally to obligations that humans have to fellow members of their own species? An answer is vital to the question of the conservation of biodiversity, how humans can achieve a sustainable relationship to the natural world. Keywords: environmental ethics, species, humans, extinction, Endangered Species Act , ecosystems, evolution.

“Earth Ethics: A Challenge to Liberal Education.”  Pages 161-192 in J. Baird Callicott and Fernando José R. da Rocha, eds., Earth Summit Ethics: Toward a Reconstructive Postmodern Philosophy of Environmental Education (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48071.  The home planet is in crisis. The two great marvels of our planet are life and mind, both among the rarest things in the universe, unknown elsewhere. Diverse combinations of nature and culture worked well enough over millennia, but no more. Our modern cultures threaten the stability, beauty, and integrity of Earth, and thereby of the cultures superposed on Earth. Behind the vision of one world is the shadow of none. We are searching for an ethics adequate to respect life on this home planet. But university education, in both the sciences and the humanities, has tended to find nature value free and to head students away from, rather than toward, an intense consciousness of land.  Keywords: universities, education, environmental education, value in nature, value free nature, environmental crisis.   Keynote address at Conference on Ethics, University, and Environment” at Federal University of Rio Grande Do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, May 25-29, 1992, a pre-conference to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

“Earth Summit.”   Volume 1, pages 223-225 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, editors, J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale, 2009).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38986.  The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), or the Earth Summit, convened in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 in the hopes of launching a number of more environmentally responsible international agreements. The Conference brought together the largest number of world leaders ever assembled: The conference produced Agenda 21, perhaps the most complex and comprehensive international document ever attempted. Initially, there was hope for four international conventions: (1) Forests, (2) Biotechnology, (3) Biodiversity, and (4) Climate, though only the latter two survived the negotiating process The Summit solidified two new principles of international order: an equitable international economic order, and sustainable development. Keywords: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED, Earth Summit, Agenda 21, international economic order, sustainable development.

“Ecological Spirituality,” American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 18(1997)59-64.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48072.   Biology and religion have increasingly joined in recent years in admiration and care for the marvels of natural history. No other species can be either responsible for or religious toward this planet, but Homo sapiens reaches a responsibility that assumes spiritual dimensions. The evolutionary and ecological creativity, and the biodiversity values these generate, are the ground of our being, not just the ground under our feet. We cannot take biology seriously without a respect for life, which often becomes a reverence for life. If anything on Earth is sacred, it must be this enthralling generativity that characterizes our home planet.   Keywords:  biology, religion, natural history, biodiversity, ecological creativity, spirit and nature, respect for life, sacred Earth.

“Ecology.” Pages 580-583 (vol. 2) in Carl Mitcham, ed., Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics (Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, Thomson/Gale, 2005).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37190. Ecology is the logic of living creatures in their homes. Ecology mixes with ethics, an ecological (or environmental) ethics urging that humans ought to find a lifestyle more harmonious with nature. Humans have always had to rest their cultures on a natural life support system. Environmental engineers may now claim that the principal novelty of the new millennium is that Earth will be a managed planet. Such claims bring increasing concern how far nature can and ought be transformed into humanized nature. Thinking of humans as fitting themselves into a sustainable biosphere is a better logic of being at home on Earth. Keywords: environmental ethics, ecology, ecosystems, conservaton, environmental science.

“Ecology.” Pages 27-31 (vol. 2) in J. Britt Holbrook and Carl Mitcham, eds.Ethics, Science, Technology, and Engineering: A Global Resource , 2nd ed. (Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, Cengage Learning, 2015. Updated entry in the 2nd edn.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/86381.

“Ecology: A Primer for Christian Ethics,” Journal of Catholic Social Thought 4(no. 2, 2007):293-312.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36771.   “Ecology” is, etymologically, the logic of living creatures’ homes. Christian ethicists find the word related to “ecumenical,” with roots in the Greek “oikos,” the inhabited world. There are both problems and opportunities when Christian ethicists look toward ecological science and wonder what (use) to make of it. Success depends on coupling prescriptive values with an environmental science that is descriptively accurate and operationally competent.  Keywords:  ecology, ecosystems, National Environmental Policy Act, ecological theory, conservation.

“Eine Ethik für den gesamten Planten: Gedanken über den Eigenwert der Natur,” Natur und Kultur: Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 7(no. 2, 2006):24-40.  Chapters 6 and 7, translated into German, of Conserving Natural Value (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994)
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41097.   Every living organism conserves its life and in that sense conservation is innate in biology. Non-conservation is death. Organisms have goods of their own, conserved and elaborated in species lines, resulting in the biodiversity on Earth. Concern for preserving nature, such as wilderness recognizes instrumental, intrinsic, and systemic values in nature. In the modern world, much of such wild nature has ended by transformation into human dominated landscapes. But nature ought also to be on end in itself. Keywords:  natural value, intrinsic value, conservation biology, wilderness, nature as end in itself.

“Endangered Species.”  Pages 154-156 in Marc Bekoff with Carron A. Meaney, eds., Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.   Pages 206-207 in second edition: Marc Bekoff, ed., Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare.  Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, ABC Clio, 2010.  “Endangered Species and Ethical Perspectives.”
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48073.     Few doubt that humans have obligations concerning endangered species. Whether humans have duties directly to endangered species is a deeper question, part of the larger issue of biodiversity conservation. Many endangered species have no resource value, nor are they particularly important for the usual humanistic reasons: medical, industrial, agricultural resources, scientific study, recreation, ecosystem stability,. Many environmental ethicists believe that species are good in their own right, whether or not they are good for anything. The duties-to-persons-only line of argument leaves deeper reasons untouched. What may be required is not just prudence saving resources but principled responsibility to the Earth. Keywords: endangered species, natural resources, biodiversity, species good of its own, responsibility to life on Earth.

“Enforcing Environmental Ethics: Civic Law and Natural Value.”  Pages 349-369 in James P. Sterba, ed., Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives. London: Routledge, 2001.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37603.  How far can and ought environmental values can be protected and enforced by legislation? Environmental regulation extends from Acts of Congress to lighting campfires and enforcement is widespread. The environment is a commons and this necessitates a public ethic where humans have benefits and harms at stake and must act in concert for protection. Environmental legislation can and ought protect animals, species, and ecosystems as well as humans–sometimes ever defending these against basic human interests.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, law, legislation, policy, enforcement, wilderness, public good, natural values, regulation, human rights, responsibility, nature. Also published in a shortened, revised form as: “Civic Law and Natural Value: Enforcing Environmental Ethics,”   Environmental Law News, Special Yosemite Commemorative Issue, October 2011, pp. 23-28. Publication of the Environmental Law Section of the State Bar of California. The State Bar of California, Environmental Law Section. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48102. See that entry.

“Engineers, Butterflies, Worldviews,” The Environmental Professional 9(1987):295-301. Invited article in special issue: “Environmental Science and Values.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39001. There is an original issue copy in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1987.  An adequate ethic for the preservation of species requires an unprecedented mixing of biological science and ethics. Duties to other humans concerning species are insufficient. Humans can also have duties to species as historically persisting forms of life. Engineers have a tendency to think of wild nature as undeveloped, raw, even waste. To the contrary, natural systems, characterized by speciation, are engineering projects worthy of admiring respect–in the sense that they represent inventive, ingenious, trial and error solutions to problems in survival.  Keywords:  engineering, butterflies, ecosystems, environmental policy, technology, natural history.

“Environmental Ethics,” in Nicholas Bunnin and E. P. Tsui-James, eds., The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003), pages 517-530.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37196.   Environmental ethics is theory and practice about appropriate concern for, values in, and duties regarding the natural world. By classical accounts, ethics is people relating to people in justice and love. Environmental ethics starts with human concerns for a quality environment, and some think this shapes the ethic from start to finish. Others hold that, beyond interhuman concerns, values are at stake when humans relate to animals, plants, species, and ecosystems. According to their vision, humans ought to find nature sometimes morally considerable in itself, and this turns ethics in new directions. Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental philosophy, nature, ecosystems, humans, animals, organisms, species, biodiversity.

“Environmental Ethics in Antarctica,” Environmental Ethics 24(2002):115-134.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36769.   The concerns of environmental ethics on other continents fail in Antarctica, which is without sustainable development, or ecosystems for a “land ethic,” or even familiar terrestrial fauna and flora. An Antarctic regime, developing politically, has been developing an ethics, underrunning the politics, remarkably exemplified in the Madrid Protocol, protecting “the intrinsic value of Antarctica.” Without inhabitants, claims of sovereignty are problematic. Antarctica is a continent for scientists and, more recently, tourists. Both focus on wild nature. Life is driven to extremes; these extremes can intensify an ethic. Antarctica as common heritage transforms into wilderness, sanctuary, wonderland. An appropriate ethics for the seventh continent differs radically from that for the other six. Keywords: environmental ethics, Antarctica, Antarctic Sanctuary, wilderness model.

“Environmental Ethics on Antarctic Ice,” Polar Record (Cambridge University, Scott Polar Institute) 36(no. 199, October 2000):289-290.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37106.   An environmental philosopher gets disoriented in Antarctica, an uninhabited continent, wilderness in deep freeze. Antarctica is peripheral to the main focus of environmental ethics, sustaining life on Earth. Yet Antarctica could set the pace for thinking about the common heritage of humankind. We must stay busy at work on the other six continents, but we ought to set this seventh continent aside. Don’t nationalize it. Don’t internationalize it. Naturalize it. Keywords: environmental ethics, Antarctica, wilderness, Wilderness Act, South Pole, Lake Vostok.

“Environmental Ethics: Some Challenges for Christians.” Pages 163-186 in Harlan Beckley, ed., The Annual: Society of Christian Ethics(Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1993).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40511.    The Christian ethics for persons, calling for love, justice, benevolence, and compassion does not transfer easily to duties toward wildlife, and the difficulties compound with an ethic toward plants, species, and ecosystems. Biblical faith began with a land ethic, a covenanted promised land, and Christians find a nature that is sacred and good in itself, regardless of its human utility. Earth is a planet with promise, nature is graced with creativity. Nature is also cruciform, death is perpetually redeemed with the renewal of life, and central themes in Christianity are congenial to an environmental ethic.  Keywords: Christians and environment, compassion, plants, animals, species, sacred nature, value in nature, nature as good in itself, cruciform nature, renewal of life.   Keynote address at the Society of Christian Ethics, Annual National Conference, Savannah, GA, January 8-10, 1993.

“Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World.” Pages 73-96 in F. Herbert Bormann, and Stephen R. Kellert,Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991),  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37180.   Environmental ethics stands on a frontier, as radically theoretical as it is applied. Alone, it asks whether there can be nonhuman objects of duty. Animals, plants, endangered species, ecosystems, and even Earth are progressively unfamiliar as objects of duty, and puzzles arise both for theory and practice. Answers to such questions are as urgent as any humans face, and intimately related to the four principal issues on the world agenda: peace, population, development, and environment.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, values in and duties to the natural world.   Variously reprinted:  Pages 65-84 in Lori Gruen and Dale Jamieson, eds., Reflecting on Nature: Readings in Environmental Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); pages 88-93, 485-492 in Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds., The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy, Ecology, Economics, first edition (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1994); also second and third editions; pages 74-87 in Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds.,Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, 3rd ed. (Boston: McGraw Hill, Inc., 2004); and other editions;  pages 33-38 in David Schmidtz and Elizabeth Willott, eds., Environmental Ethics: Introductory Readings (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) ; and other editions. Also translated into Spanish, Chinese, and Hungarian.

“Environmental Protection and an Equitable International Order: Ethics after the Earth Summit,” Business Ethics Quarterly5(1995):735-752.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41096.   The UNCED Earth Summit established two new principles of international justice: an equitable international order and protection of the environment. UNCED was a significant symbol, a morality play about environment and economics. Wealth is asymmetrically distributed; approximately one fifth of the world (the G 7 nations) produces and consumes four fifths of goods and services; four fifths (the G 77 nations) get one fifth. This distribution can be interpreted as both an earnings differential and as exploitation. Responses may require justice or charity, producing and sharing. Natural and national resources come into tension with the common heritage of humankind, exemplified in disputes about who owns biodiversity resources. Ethics has to learn planetary home economics.  Keywords:  United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED, equitable international order, sustainability, distribution of wealth, environmental justice, common heritage of humankind, natural resources, national resources.  Reprinted in Donald A. Brown, compiler, Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference Held at the United Nations on the Ethical Dimensions of the United Nations Program on Environmental and Development, Agenda 21 (Camp Hill, Pa: Earth Ethics Research Group, 1994), pages 267-284.  Translated into Chinese as 环境保护与公平的国际秩序, inHuanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society) 环境与社会 (Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics) 2(no. 2, June 1999):49-55 (trans. by Li Shili). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79530.

“Environmental Science and Environmental Advocacy,” in Anders Nordgren, ed., Science, Ethics, Sustainability: The Responsibility of Science in Attaining Sustainable Development, Centre for Research Ethics, University of Uppsala, Sweden. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studies in Bioethics and Research Ethics 2 (Uppsala, Sweden, Centre for Research Ethics, 1997), pp. 137-153.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46013.  Science and conscience have a complex, elusive relationship, nowhere better illustrated than in the relationship between environmental science and environmental ethics. Each can inform the other to connect facts with values, descriptions with prescriptions, to make advocates out of scientists and scientists out of advocates. Making these connections, always important, is more urgent than ever; indeed, the future of the planet and all those who reside on it, depends on joining science and conscience.  1. Environmental Science and Environmental Ethics — 2. Descriptive Is and Evaluative Ought — 3. Ecology and a Sustainable Biosphere — 4. A Forest Ethic and Sustainable Forestry — 5. Environmental Health and Integrity — 6. Stability and Sustainability in a Land Ethic — 7. Earth Ethics: Sustaining and Managing the Planet — 8. Vital Conservation Biology. Keywords:  science and ethics, environmental science, ecology, sustainable forestry, environmental health, environmental integrity, land ethic, stability, sustainability, earth ethics, managing nature.  Also presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual Meeting, Atlanta, February 16-21, 1995.

“Environmental Science and Environmental Advocacy,” Reflections: Newsletter of the Program for Ethics, Science, and the Environment, Oregon State University, Department of Philosophy, Special Issue 4, pp. 2-3. April 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79097. Science and conscience have a complex, elusive relationship and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the relationship between environmental science and environmental ethics. Some ecological descriptions are more or less laden with values: order, stability, diversity, communities, interdependence, health, integrity, resilience, efficiency, flourishing. Examples from the Ecological Society of America and a sustainable biosphere, as this differs from sustainable development, advocated by the United Nations UNCED conference. Asking what is “vital” joins environmental science and environmental ethics. Keywords: science and values; conscience; environmental ethics; environmental advocacy; Ecological Society of America; United Nations UNCED conference; sustainable biosphere; sustainable development.

“Environmental Virtue Ethics: Half the Truth but Dangerous as a Whole.” Pages 61-78 in Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro, eds.,Environmental Virtue Ethics. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2005.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37600.   Virtue cannot be self-contained but must be in place. We actualize a uniquely human capacity for excellence when we respect non-human life. If this really comes from appreciating otherness, then such human virtue is tributary to value in other forms of life. If a virtue ethics is unable to disentwine human virtues from intrinsic values in nature, we have but a half truth, dangerous if taken for the whole. Keywords:  nature, character, culture, virtue, unexamined life, caring, values, ethics, environmentalism.   Translated into German, “Umwelt-Tugendethik: Die halbe Warheit – Sie für das Ganze zu halten, ist aber gefährlich (Environmental Virtue Ethics: Half the Truth but Dangerous as a Whole),” in Natur und Kultur : Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 6/2 (2005):93-112.  German translation available online at:  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41098.

“Esiste un’etica ecologica? (Is There an Ecological Ethic?)”  Pages 151-171 in Mariachiara Tallacchini, ed., Etiche della terra: Antologia di filosofia dell’ ambiente (Milan: Vita e Pensiero, 1998). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37186.   Italian translation of “Is There an Ecological Ethic?” first published in Ethics: An International Journal of Social and Political Philosophy 85(1975):93-109.

“Esteettinen kokemus metissä (Aesthetic Experience in Forests).”  Pages 31-47 in Yrjö Sepänmaa, ed. Metsään Mieleni (Helsinki: Maahenski, 2003).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37123.   Text in Finnish.  Forests are aesthetically challenging because of the sense of deep time, experiencing an archetype of creation. Forests are both perennial and dynamic. Appropriate aesthetic encounter requires knowledge of scientific natural history, necessary though not sufficient for intense, multisensory, participatory engagement when persons, immersed in forests, live their aesthetic experiences. Forests, although naturalized, are experienced as sublime, evoking the sense of the sacred. Aesthetic appreciation in forests radically differs from that appropriate for artworks. Keywords:  forests, archetype, humans, scientific appreciation, aesthetic engagement, sublime.  Invited address at The Aesthetics of the Forest, Second International Conference on Landscape Aesthetics, Lusto, Punkaharju, Finland, June 10-13, 1996.  Also published as “Aesthetic Experience in Forests,” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56(1998):157-166.

“Ethical Responsibilities toward Wildlife,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200(1992):618-622.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40512.    Save the whales! Let the bison drown! Let the lame deer suffer! Leave wounded deer to the coyotes! Let the blinded bighorns starve! Treat the bighorns with lung worm! Rescue the sow grizzly! Shoot the feral goats! Sterilize the mustangs! Restore the wolves! Respect wild life! Compassion is not the only consideration in an ethic, and in environmental ethics it plays a different role than in a humanist ethics. To intervene artificially in the processes of natural selection is not to do wild animals any benefit at the level of the good of the kind, although it would benefit an individual. However, intervention is warranted if humans have caused the suffering or threatened the species.  Keywords: suffering in wild animals, compassion, let nature take its course, bison, deer, wolves, grizzly bears, medical intervention in wildlife.  Originally a keynote address, “Ethical Responsibilities toward Wildlife,” at the American Veterinary Medical Association Forum on “The Veterinarian’s Role in the Welfare of Wildlife,” Palmer House, Chicago, IL, November 7, 1991.

“Ethics and the Environment” (Types of Environmental Ethics) . Chapter 11, pages 407-437, in Paul de Vries, Robert M. Veatch, Lisa H. Newton, Emily V. Baker and Michael Lewis Richardson, eds., Ethics Applied, edition 2 (Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster, 1999).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39003.  Twelve types of environmental ethics: 1. Humanistic and naturalistic ethics. 2. A triangular affair: humans, animals, and a land ethic. 3. Biocentrism and respect for life. 4. Deep ecology. 5. Theology and the environment. 6. Expanding communities, concentric circles. 7. Axiological environmental ethics: intrinsic, instrumental, and ecosystemic values. 8. Political ecology and green politics. 9. Sustainable development and sustainable biosphere. 10. Bioregionalism. 11. Ecofeminism. 12. Pluralism, postmodernism, and a sense of place. Variously constructed kinds of environmental ethics need to join as all humans see themselves as Earthlings, with their home planet as a responsibility.  Also in edition 3, pages 383-411 (Boston: Pearson Education, 2000).
Translated into Chinese: “Huanjing lunlixue de leixing” (“Types of Environmental Ethics”) in Zhexue Yicong (Philosophy Digest of Translation), (Journal of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing), 1999, no. 4, pp. 17-22. Translator: Liu Er. ISSN 1002-8854.   There is a copy of this issue in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1999.
Second Chinese translation, “Huan-Ching Lun-Li-Shueh te Chung-Lei,” in Chen, Tzu-Mei, ed., Introduction to Environmental Ethics (Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men) (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 261-301. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“Ethics on the Home Planet.”  Pages 107-139 in Anthony Weston, ed, An Invitation to Environmental Philosophy. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37456.   Views of Earth from space bring us home again. Earth is to be treasured, something precious that must endure. Human desires for maximum development drive population increases, escalate exploitation of the environment, and fuel the forces of war. So we are searching for an ethics adequate to respect life on Earth. The valuing of nature is not over until we have risen to the planetary level, and valued this system we inhabit. Earth is really the relevant survival unit. This environmental ethics for the new millennium. Keywords:  Earth, environmental ethics, life, mind, ethics, nature, humans, animals, plants, endangered species, biodiversity, ecosystems.

“Ética ambiental (Environmental Ethics).”  Pages 557-571 in Compêndio de Filosofia, segunda edição, 2007, tradução de Luiz Paulo Rouanet; São Paulo, SP, Brasil; Edições Loyola, ISBN: 978-85-15-03047-7. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48074.    Text in Portuguese, translated from “Environmental Ethics” in Nicholas Bunnin and E. P. Tsui-James, eds., The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003), pages 517-530; see that entry.

“F/Actual Knowing: Putting Facts and Values in Place,” Ethics and the Environment 10(no. 2, 2005):137-174. Theme issue on Epistemology and Environmental Philosophy.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37127.   Knowing needs to be actualized, an act of ours, yet also a discovery of what is actually, factually there. Embodied, emplaced persons, shaped by our concepts and percepts, perhaps all our knowledge wears a human face. But we humans have powers of dis-placement too, sometimes taking up the situations of others than humans. Language is for conversing with each other; language is for encountering the world we inhabit. We sometimes find placed there before us what we variously value on Earth. The human genius can transcend location. Keywords: knowledge, green, nature, ecology, environmental values, perceptual experience, epistemology.

“Feeding People versus Saving Nature.”   Pages 248-267 in William Aiken and Hugh LaFollette, eds., World Hunger and Morality, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,1996). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37604.   Ought one to feed people rather than save nature? People value many worthwhile things over feeding the hungry; they post national boundaries against the poor; there is unjust distribution of wealth; escalating birthrates offset gains in alleviating poverty; there is low productivity on domesticated lands; sacrificed wildlands are often low in productivity; and significant natural values may be at stake. Sometimes, one ought to save nature.   Keywords: environmental ethics, sustainable development, humans, nature, environmental protection, poverty, Rio Declaration, social justice, hunger, population.
Reprinted variously:   Pages 409-420 in Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds., The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy, Ecology, Economics, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998); pages 404-416.in David Schmidtz and Elizabeth Willott, eds., Environmental Ethics: Introductory Readings (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); also second edition; pages 451-462 in Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III, eds., Environmental Ethics: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2003), with reply by Robin Attfield, “Saving Nature, Feeding People, and Ethics,” pages 463-471;  J. Baird Callicott and Clare Palmer, eds., Environmental Philosophy: Critical Concepts in the Environment (London: Routledge, 2005), vol. 4, pp. 23-40; and others.

“Fishes in the Desert–Paradox and Responsibility.” Pages 93-108 in W. L. Minckley and James E. Deacon, eds., Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West, an anthology of the Desert Fishes Council. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1991.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37194.    An adequate ethic for the conservation of desert fishes requires an unprecedented mixture of biology and ethics. Anthropocentric rationales based on benefits to humans are insufficient. Species of desert fish are dynamic historical lineages, where vertebrate speciation is impressively in progress, and this process and its products calls for appropriate respect. Human have duties not simply to other humans but to species of fish–instance, increment, and symbol of respect for life on Earth.  Keywords:  desert fishes, desert life, endemic species, conservation, ethics.

“From Beauty to Duty: Aesthetics of Nature and Environmental Ethics.”  Pages 127-141 in Arnold Berleant, ed., Environment and the Arts: Perspectives on Environmental Aesthetics (Aldershot, Hampshire and Burlington, VT: UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2002).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37181.    In both environmental aesthetics and environmental ethics something of value is at stake. These are often connected: If beauty, then: duty. But not all duties are tied to beauties. Other premises, such as resource use or respect for life, might better yield duties. Human aesthetic capacities depend on aesthetic properties of value. Wildlife admirers focus on animal excellences. Biotic communities, ecosystems, have their integrities. In a participatory aesthetics, an appropriate admiration for nature transforms into our caring. Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental aesthetics, scenic grandeur, conservation, biotic community, nature.   Reprinted in Allen Carlson and Sheila Lintott, eds., Nature, Aesthetics, and Environmentalism(New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), pages 325-338.
Reprinted, translated by Zhao, Hongmei into Chinese, 从美到 : 自然的美学与环境伦理学 [Cong mei dao ze ren : zi ran de mei xue yu huan jing lun li xue] [From Beauty to Duty: Aesthetics of Nature and Environmental Ethics], pages 24-40 in Hubei University, Hubei Center for Morality and Civilization, Jiazhilun yu lunlixue yanjiu (Axiology and Ethics) (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Publishing Co, 2009). ISBN 978-7-5004-7967-3.  Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37203.    Reprinted, translated into Chinese, second time, in: Huan jing yu yi shu: Huan jing mei xue de duo wei shi jiao, editor/translators Liu, Yuedi, Bo Lin Te (Chinese translation of: Arnold Berleant, ed., Environment and the Arts: Perspectives on Environmental Aesthetics): Chongqing : Chongqing chu ban she (Chongquing Publishing House), 2007. ISBN: 978-7-5366-8509. Also in electronic form: an Apabi e-book.

“Global Environmental Ethics: A Valuable Earth.”  Pages 349-366 in Richard L. Knight and Sara F. Bates, eds., A New Century for Natural Resources Management (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39374.   Environmental ethics in the next century will increasingly have to ask what kind of balance ought to be reached between nature and culture. Earth is now in a post-evolutionary phase. Perhaps the principal novelty of the new millennium is that Earth will be a managed planet. Today there are problems of overpopulation, overconsumption, and the underdistribution of resources. Humans must remake Earth for the supporting of agriculture, industry, and culture. After that, perhaps, on the larger planetary scales, it is better to build our cultures in intelligent harmony with the way the world is already built, rather than take control and rebuild the planet by ourselves and for ourselves.   Keywords: nature, culture, end of nature, natural resources, national resources, population, consumption, Earth ethics.  Reprinted, translated into Chinese, in Ye Ping, et al, eds., Sheng t’a huan ching pao hu tzu jan tzu yüan kuan li ti li lun yen chiu (A Theoretical Study of Ecological Environmental Protection and Management of Natural Resources). He-lung chiang k’o hsüeh chi shu ch’u pan she, 1995. ISBN 7-5388-2729-3 (Harbin, China: Scientific and Technological Publishing Co., 1995), pages 67-83.

Global Chorus. MacLean, Todd E., ed., Global Chorus: 365 Voices on the Future of the Planet (Toronto: Rocky Mountain Books, 2014). Contains Rolston short entry, untitled (June 7), p. 179. We live at a change of epochs, a hinge point of history. We have entered the first century in the 45 million centuries of life on Earth in which one species can jeopardize the planet’s future. The ultimate unite of moral concern is the ultimate survival unit: this wonderland biosphere. We do not want a denatured life on a denatured planet. Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/89529.

“Greening Education: The Next Millennium.” Afterword, pages 191-196 in American Association of State Colleges and Universities,Stewardship of Public Lands: A Handbook for Educators (Washington: American Association of State Colleges and Universities [AASCU]), 2010.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38999.   College students today need to be wiser than Socrates, who sought wisdom but avoided nature. John Muir left Wisconsin University for the University of the Wilderness. No education is complete without a concept of nature, and no ethics is complete until one has an appropriate respect for fauna, flora, landscapes and ecosystems. “Who am I?” leads to more inclusive questions: “Where on Earth am I?” “What on Earth ought we to be doing?” Without a three-dimensional education – experience of the urban, the rural, and the wild – students will be under-privileged. The educated person today does not want to live a de-natured life, or to live on a de-natured planet.   Keywords: stewardship, public lands, environmental ethics. education, sustainable development, sustainable biosphere, ecosystems, nature, value, perpetual perishing.

“Hargrove, Eugene.”  Volume 1, pages 482-483 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, editors, J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale, 2009).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38987.  Eugene C. Hargrove, as founder and editor of the journal Environmental Ethics, has for three decades been the principal figure in setting the context for the development of environmental philosophy. He is known especially for his research into the history of ideas behind environmental thought, such as aesthetic appreciation of nature in landscape and wildlife art. Hargrove has also been pivotal in graduate education in the field across his career, founding the first Ph.D. program in the world with a specific focus on environmental ethics. Keywords:  Hargrove, Eugene C., 1944-, environmental ethics, environmental philosophy.

“Hewn and Cleft from this Rock: Meditation at the Precambrian Contact,” Main Currents in Modern Thought 27(1971):79-83.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37104.  Encounter with the Precambrian contact exposed at Pardee Point in Doe River Gorge, East Tennessee, brings reflections about human origins, evolving and cleft from ancient rocks. Geochemistry has its sequel in biochemistry. The hiker crosses that fossil sequence recorded in the strata. A discontinuity is crossed with the coming of humans: A sheriff crossing the contact in search of moonshiners. The rocks are a sacrament that overlie a Presence.  Keywords:  Precambrian contact, precambrian terrain, geology, Homo faber, Homo moralis, Homo admirans, Tennessee.   Also published in Philosophy Gone Wild.

“Human Uniqueness and Human Dignity: Persons in Nature and the Nature of Persons.”  Pages 129-153 in President’s Council on Bioethics, Human Dignity and Bioethics (Washington, DC: President’s Council on Bioethics, March 2008.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37183.   Also available online at: http://www.bioethics.gov/topics/human_dignity.html.   The gulf separating humans from all other species can sensitize us to our potential for dignity. Only humans have linguistic capacities capable of sustaining cumulative transmissible cultures. Ideas pass from mind to mind. Our ideas and deliberated practices re-configure our brain structures. The human brain, the most complex thing known in the universe, can generate ideals. Humans become existential and ethical persons, embodied “spirit.”   Keywords: humanity, dignity, personal identity, morals, nature, culture, teaching, learning, uniqueness.  Also published as pages 129-153 in Edmund D. Pellegrino, Adam Schulman, and Thomas W. Merrill, eds., Human Dignity and Bioethics. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2009.

“Human Values and Natural Systems,” Society and Natural Resources 1(1988):271-283.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37707.    What human values are earned by natural systems?  I can answer that question directly while I indirectly address a deeper question. Are values in nature objective or subjective? Some values (the nutrition in a potato) seem objectively there, while others (the eagle as a national symbol) seem merely assigned. Either way, certain experiences that humans find to be valuable require and are carried by natural things. As we examine the types of natural values, we can wonder whether-at times at least-value intrinsic in nature enables humans to enjoy these values. Keywords:  culture, biosystem, nature, values, ecology, economics, recreation, science, aesthetics, Endangered Species Act.

“Il fiume di vita: passato, presente e futuro (The River of Life: Past, Present, and Future),” Aut Aut: rivista di filosofia e di cultura, Issue 316-317, July-October 2003, pages 139-144. Italian translation by Roberto Peverelli.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39070.    A river of life is imagery that can launch critical reflection. Life is a current, a naturally impelled flow that is energetically maintained over time. Life is a continuous and ceaseless stream that transcends the individual. In this processive on rolling we can find a confluence of the actual and the potential, the self and the other, the human and the natural, the present and the historical, and the is and the ought.   Keywords: environmental ethics, conservation, moral aspects, ethical aspects, biosystems, life processes. Originally published as “The River of Life: Past, Present, and Future,” in Ernest Partridge, ed., Responsibilities to Future Generations (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1981), pp. 123-132.

“Immunity in Natural History,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (University of Chicago Press) 39(1996):353-372.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41100.   Immunity, involving a struggle for health, is also the defense of biological identity, and, in advanced species, of an idiographic self. The identity of any such “self,” though protected by immunity, is enlarged by kin selection, sexuality, reproduction, and caring for offspring. The environment “foreign” from the perspective of immunity is “home” from the perspective of ecology. Immunity makes evolution possible. Immunity, in which an organism acquires information during its biography, is the evolution of ordered control and results in values shared as well as selves defended. Errors here are intrinsic to trial and error learning, a process with analogies in the science of immunology. Keywords: immunity, self, selfish, kin selection, ecology, natural history.   Nobel Conference XXVIII Lecture at Gustavus Adolphus College, October 1992.

“In Defense of Ecosystems,” Garden 12, no. 4 (July/August 1988): 2-5, p. 32.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36763.   Ethical concern has focused on the welfare of individuals–persons, animals, plants–but an environmental ethic is not complete without concern for the biotic community. This shift of focus can be defended with prudential reasons. At depth, however, the defense of ecosystems involves more moral courage. Human cultures emerged from Earth’s ecosystems, remain tethered to them, and ought to respect creative evolutionary ecosystems, the systems of life.   Keywords:  Endangered Species Act, ecosystems, environmental ethics, ecological ethics.  Article commissioned by New York Botanical Gardens, in consortium with fourteen botanical gardens around the U. S., for their journal.

“In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation: Philosophical and Ethical Concerns.”  Pages 21-39 in Edward O. Guerrant, Jr., Kathy Havens, and Mike Maunder, eds. Ex Situ Plant Conservtion: Supporting Species in the Wild. Society for Ecological Restoration International and Center for Plant Conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39090.   Understandings of “natural” and “artificial” lie in the background of discussions about in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Plants growing ex-situ in botanic gardens are hybrids of the natural and the artificial. There will be temptations to substitute ex-situ for in situ conservation, believing this to protect the desired resource base. The intrinsic values in plants are ecosystemically situated. In this sense intrinsic plant value is in-situ. Removed to an ex-situ location, a plant–especially a domesticated or captive plant–becomes something else, compromised in its integrity. Such compromise may be pragmatically and politically necessary, but it needs to be recognized philosophically and ethically as prejudicing the values carried by plants. Keywords:  nature, conservation, wild, plants, ecosystems.

“Intrinsic Values in Nature (Iceland)”   Pages 1-11 in Æsa Sigurjónsdóttir and Ólafur Páll Jónsson, eds. Art, Ethics and Environment: A Free Inquiry Into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature (Newcastle. UK: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006). ISBN 1-84718-039-6.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48077.   Although much of the urgency for conserving biodiversity arises from our duties to other humans, with nature instrumental to what humans have at stake in their environments, a deeper environmental ethics recognizes intrinsic values in and duties directly to nature. Such duties arise because values are present at the levels of animals, living organisms, endangered species, and ecosystems as biotic communities. Ultimately and increasingly, we are responsible for and to Earth as planet and biosphere. Only people can be ethical, but this does not mean that only people count in ethics; to the contrary we are fully human only when we appropriately respect life on Earth in all its rich biodiversity.   Keywords:  integrity, intrinsic value, good of its kind, biological identity, value capture, nature and culture, ecosystems, Earth ethic.   Address at the conference: Nature in the Kingdom of Ends,” Selfoss, Iceland, 2005.

“Intrinsic Values on Earth: Nature and the Nations.”  Pages 47-67 in Henk A.M.J. ten Have, ed., Environmental Ethics and International Policy (Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2006). ISBN: 13:987-92-3-104039-9.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40513.   Ultimately and increasingly, humans are responsible for and to Earth as planet and biosphere. Peoples in their nations are and ought to be united on one Earth, with an ethic inclusive of both humans and nature. Only people can be ethical, but this does not mean that only people count in ethics; to the contrary we are fully human only when we appropriately respect life on Earth in all its rich biodiversity. Much of the urgency for conserving biodiversity arises from our duties to other humans, with nature instrumental to what humans have at stake in their environments. These interests directly feed into national interests and require international cooperation. But a deeper environmental ethics recognizes intrinsic values in and duties directly to nature. Such duties arise because values are distributed at the levels of animals, living organisms, endangered species, and ecosystems as biotic communities, as well as in human life. Cumulatively, this demands an Earth Ethics–increasingly an important mission of the United Nations. Keywords:   environmental ethics, nature, environmental policy, Earth ethics, biodiversity, natural resources, national resources, United Nations. Translated into several other languages.

“Is There an Ecological Ethic?” Ethics: An International Journal of Social and Political Philosophy 85(1975):93-109.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37108.   The environment is on the world agenda, also on the ethical frontier, for the foreseeable future. Environmental ethics is about saving things past, still present. Environmental ethics is equally about future nature, without analogy in our past. Living at one of the ruptures of history, modern cultures threaten the stability, beauty, and integrity of Earth, and thereby of the cultures superposed on Earth. Environmental ethics must find a satisfactory fit for humans in the larger communities of life on Earth.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, ecological ethics, ecology, natural law, moral principles, conservation, stewardship, ecosystems. There are also two original issues in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1975.
Variously reprinted, including: J. Baird Callicott and Clare Palmer, eds., Environmental Philosophy: Critical Concepts in the Environment (London: Routledge, 2005), vol. 1, pp. 54-71; as one of ten primary sources in the field, in J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman, eds. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, Volume 2, pages 492-501 (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale); translated into Chinese by Ye Ping in Qiu Renzong, ed., Guowai Zirankexue Zhexuewenti 1990 (International Philosophical Problems in Natural Science 1990) (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy. Beijing: Social Science Press, 1991); translated into Russian in L. I. Vasilenko and V. E. Ermolaeva (Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences) eds., Globalniye Problemy i Obshchechelovecheskiye Tsennosti (Global Problems and Human Values) (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990), pp. 258-288; and others.

“Just Environmental Business.” Chapter 11, pages 324-359, in Tom Regan, ed., Just Business: New Introductory Essays in Business Ethics(New York: Random House, 1984). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46010.   Business and a humanistic environmental ethic, with ten maxims, such as the stakeholder maxim or the no-discount maxim. Business and a naturalistic environmental ethic, with ten maxims, such as the reversibility maxim, or the china-shop maxim. Ethical complexities in business and environmental concerns, with ten maxims, such as the buck-stopping maxim, or the burden-of-proof maxim. Keywords:  business, environment, ethical maxims, stakeholders, discounting, toxics, steady state, burden of proof, questioning authority.

“Justifying Sustainable Development: A Continuing Ethical Search,” Global Dialogue (Centre for World Dialogue, Nicosia, Cyprus) 4(no. 1, 2002:103-113.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37109.    Five criticisms of sustainable development are examined: (1) Is it moral umbrella? Or cover-up? (2) Do we have duties to future generations? (3) How far do rich Americans have duties of justice or benevolence to the developing world? (4) Is producing more, even sustainably, an ultimate good? (5) Do we seek sustainable development or a sustainable biosphere? Finally, if sustainability is justified, ought we to enforce it?   Keywords: environmental ethics, sustainable development, conservation. human needs, justice, ecological integrity.

“Kenosis and Nature.  Pages 43-65 in John Polkinghorne, ed., The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis (London: SPCK, 2001 and Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46011.  “Kenosis” is the theological idea of self-emptying, usually applied to divine self-emptying in the life of Jesus. Is there kenosis in nature? This might seem unlikely with selfish genes and survival of the fittest, self-defense and self-actualizing. But beyond self-identity, there is defense of species identity, inclusive and shared fitness, interdependence and symbiosis. In sexuality and reproduction, and regeneration, organisms care for others, give themselves over to the next and future generations. In cruciform nature, there is suffering that life may continue, with individuals sacrificed for ongoing life. A non-deliberated kenosis is part of the biological order, but deliberated kenosis only comes with human life.   Keywords:   kenosis, self-emptying, selfish genes, self-defense, self-actualizing, self-sacrifice, shared fitness, species identity, sexuality, reproduction, regeneration, cruciform nature.

“Komodo Dragons Highlight Indonesia Adventure,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, November 6, 2011, p. C8.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46012.  Rolston account of a September 2011 trip to see Komodo dragons in the wild, on Komodo and Rinca Islands, Indonesia. Also Orange-footed Scrubfowl, or Megapodes. Keywords: Komodo Dragons, Komodo Island, Rinca Island, Flores Island, Orange-footed Scrubfowl, Megapodes, water-buffalo, wild boar, parthenogenesis.

“Können und sollen wir der Natur folgen? (Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?).”  Pages 242-285 in Dieter Birnbacher, ed.,Ökophilosophie (Ditzingen, Germany: Philipp Reclam jun. Stuttgart, Reclams Universal-Bibliothek, 1997). ISBN 3-15-009636-7.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37207.   German translation of “Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?” Environmental Ethics 1(1979):7-30.

“La valeur dans la nature et la nature de la valeur (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value).”  Pages 153-186 in Hicham-Stéphane Afeissa, editor and translator, Éthique de l’environment: Nature, valeur, respect (Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2007).http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37451.  French translation of  “Value in Nature and the Nature of Value.” In Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pages 13-30.

“Lake Solitude: The Individual in Wildness,” Main Currents in Modern Thought 31(1975):121-126.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37105.    Lake Solitude, in remote Rocky Mountain National Park, offers a solitary traveler a place to seek continuities and discontinuities with nature, a communion of opposites. To travel into the wilderness is to go into what one is not, so that in returning to its natural complement, mind grasps itself. Nature thrusts humans into an immense solitude, but that is her grandest gift. This environmental resistance frees us for and impels us toward centered personality.   Keywords: solitude, spiritual energy, wildness, Lake Solitude, Rocky Mountain National Park.  Also published in Philosophy Gone Wild.   Reprinted, translated into Chinese by Liu Er, in Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society) 2 (no. 4, December 1999), with copy of the Chinese journal issue in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1999.

“Landscape from Eighteenth Century to the Present,” in Michael Kelly, ed., Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). Volume 3, pages 93-99. Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/89530  This encyclopedia was revised in 2014, see next entry.

“Landscape from Eighteenth Century to the Present,” in Michael Kelly, ed., Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), pages 117-122. Available online at: http:hdl.handle.net/10217/89531.

“Life and the Nature of Life–in Parks.” Pages 103-113 in David Harmon and Allen D. Putney, eds., The Full Value of Parks: From the Economic to the Intangible (Lanham. MD: Rowman and Littlefield,) 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37178.     Parks in the greater outdoors provide dimensions of depth belied by the recreational setting. A park is presence and symbol of the timeless natural givens. Humans realize within themselves something of the strength and goodness that nature has disciplined into its creatures. Parks put cultured humans in dialectic with spontaneous wild nature. In parks, we place boundaries and reserve sanctuaries where the nonhuman community of life is respected and can remain. Thereby we are uniquely human and our spirits are enriched.   Keywords:  parks, recreation, national parks and reserves. protected areas, nature conservation, philosophical places, nature.    A sourcebook for the Fifth World Parks Congress, IUCN, Durban, South Africa, September 2003.  Reprinted in The George Wright Forum 21(no. 2, June, 2004):69-77.

“Menschen Ernähren oder Natur Erhalten (Feeding People versus Saving Nature) ?” in Conceptus: Zeitschrift für philosophie 29(nr. 74, 1996):1-25.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37605.    Translation into German of “Feeding People versus Saving Nature,” in William Aiken and Hugh LaFollette, eds., World Hunger and Morality, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996), pages 248-267.  See that entry.   With reply,”Natur Erhalten oder Menschen Ernähren?” (“Saving Nature or Feeding People?”) by Robin Attfield (Philosophy, University of Wales), Conceptus 29:27-45.

“Messaging Morality: Ethics across the Cosmos.” Rolston lecture at a SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) workshop, February 14, 2015, Mountain View, California. 52 minutes. When we consider active SETI, or METI, transmitting messages that might be received by extraterrestrial intelligence, what might we say about human morality? Messages will more likely be understood if kept short and basic. Seek peace! Be fair! Tell the truth! Keep promises! Taking a longer view, considering transit millennia, we should transmit truths that are both profound and permanently true. Online at: http:handle.net/10217/89538.

“Mountain Majesties above Fruited Plains: Culture, Nature, and Rocky Mountain Aesthetics,” Environmental Ethics 30(2008):3-20.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36770.   Those residing in the Rocky Mountains enjoy both nature and culture in ways not characteristic of many inhabited landscapes. Landscapes elsewhere in the United States and in Europe involve a nature-culture synthesis. An original nature, once encountered by settlers, has been transformed by a dominating culture, and on the resulting landscape, there is little experience of primordial nature. On Rocky Mountain landscapes, the model is an ellipse with two foci. Much of the landscape is in synthesis, but there is much landscape where the principal determinant remains spontaneous nature, contrasted with the developed, rebuilt landscape in which the principal determinant is culture. Life in the Rockies permits both use and admiration of nature (fruited plains), with constant reminders (mountain majesties) that the human scale of values is rather tentatively localized in a more comprehensive environment. Keywords: Rocky Mountains, environmental aesthetics, aesthetics in landscapes, aesthetics in mountains, Front Range.     Also published in Sven Arntzen and Emily Brady, eds., Humans in the Land: The Ethics and Aesthetics of the Cultural Landscape (Oslo: Oslo Academic Press, Unipub Norway, 2008), pages 199-220.  ISBN 978-82-7477-343-1.

“Narava, kultura in etika okolja (Nature, Culture, and Environmental Ethics).”  Pages 25-42 in Dušan Ogrin, ed., Varstvo narave zunaj zavarovanih obmo ij / The Conservation of Nature Outside Protected Areas (Ljubljnana, Slovenia: Urad RS za prostorska planiranje, Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor / Office for Physical Planning, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Republic of Slovenia, and Inštitut za krajinsko arhitekturo, Biotehniška fakulteta / Institute of Landscape Architecture, University of Ljubljana, 1996).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37202.  In Slovenian and also translated into English.  Humans in their cultures are out of sustainable relationships to the natural environments on which these cultures are superimposed. Bringing such culture into more intelligent relationships with the natural world requires not so much “naturalizing culture” as discriminating recognition of the radical differences between nature and culture, on the basis of which an ethic of complementarity may be possible. How far nature can and ought be transformed into humanized nature is a provocative question. Environmental ethics ought also to seek nature as an end in itself. Keywords:  environmental ethics, ecology, ecosystems, humans, culture, sustainability.  Conference proceedings from European Union, Conference on the Conservation of Nature Outside Protected Areas, Ljubljana, Slovenia, November 1995.

“Natural and Unnatural, Wild and Cultural,” in Western North American Naturalist 61(2001):267-276.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37454.  Yellowstone’s mission is clarified by analysis of the “natural” and the “unnatural.” “Wild nature” denotes, outside culture, evolutionary and ecological natural history present on the landscape, jeopardized by numerous human influences, including exotic species. Natural processes can be preserved because of, rather than in spite of, park management. Yellowstone provides an opportunity to encounter and to conserve nature as an end in itself, past, present, and future.   Keywords:  nature, natural, wild, pristine, wilderness, culture, management, exotics, ecology, evolution, Yellowstone.    Originally the Aubrey L. Haines Distinguished Lecture at the Fifth Biennial Scientific Conference on the Great Yellowstone Ecosystem, National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, WY, October 11-13, 1999.

“Naturalizing Callicott.” Pages 107-122 in Ouderkirk, Wayne, and Hill, Jim, eds., Land, Value, Community: Callicott and Environmental Philosophy (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2002).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48096.   In environmental philosophy, J. Baird Callicott is a doubtful guide; indeed he has gotten himself lost. He cannot find values in nature, not intrinsically. Indeed, at times he cannot find nature at all, only a nature commingled with culture. So, paradoxically, we need to get Callicott, though he thinks of himself as a naturalist, really naturalized. I cannot follow him in his arguments (1) about nature and culture, (2) about intrinsic natural value, and (3) about wilderness. He so resolutely opposes dichotomizing humans and nature that he cannot find any integrity for nature on its own. He remains, for a would-be naturalist, surprisingly humanistic–with people projecting their values onto nature, with people managing their landscapes. This is half the truth. But it is not the whole truth.   Keywords: value in nature, nature and culture, natural values, projected values, wilderness, naturalism, J. Baird Callicott, anthropogenic value.

“Naturalizing Values: Organisms and Species.”  Pages 76-86. in Louis P. Pojman, ed., Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, 3rd ed. (Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2001). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37189.  Philosophers are seem unable and unwilling to naturalize value. But values are deeply embedded in evolutionary and ecological natural history. Biologists are regularly discovering such values; survival value is a key to natural selection and adapted fit. Nevertheless, most philosophers insist that value is anthropocentric, allowing only dispositional value to nature, also value where there is sentient life. These psychological accounts are incomplete. This is evidenced in non-sentient organisms, in species lines, and in genetic knowledge. Unless we naturalize values, we face an epistemic and axiological crisis.   Keywords:  naturalism, values, ethics, epistemology, metaphysics, axiology, dragonflies, leaf stomata, bacterial clocks, genomes, biocentric values.   Article first published in this anthology. Paper given at American Philosophical Association, Washington, DC, December 1998. With published commentary, Ned Hettinger, “Comments on Holmes Rolston’s `Naturalizing Values’,” pages 86-89. Reprinted in later editions.

“Nature and Culture in Environmental Ethics.” Pages 151-158 in Klaus Brinkmann, ed., Ethics: The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, vol. 1 (Bowling Green, Ohio: Philosophy Documentation Center, 1999).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37447.  Humans in their cultures are out of sustainable relationships to the natural environments on which these cultures are superimposed. Bringing such culture into more intelligent relationships with the natural world requires not so much “naturalizing culture” as discriminating recognition of the radical differences between nature and culture, on the basis of which an ethic of complementarity may be possible. How far nature can and ought be transformed into humanized nature is a provocative question. Environmental ethics ought also to seek nature as an end in itself.  Keywords: nature, culture, humans, sustainability, environmental philosophy.   Invited paper at the Session on Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Robin Attfield, Chair, World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, August 1998.

“Nature and Human Emotions.”   Pages 89-96 in Fred D. Miller, Jr., and Thomas W. Attig, eds., Understanding Human Emotions(Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Studies in Applied Philosophy, 1979), volume 1.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37197.   Our encounter with nature is as passionate as it is cognitive. We have emotions of discontinuity before a nature we resist and fear. Our centripetal self maintains its integrity against the centrifugal wildness. There are also emotions of continuity, a nature we embrace and love–our country, the hills and rivers of home. Human emotions defend the self, aloft and transcendent over nature, but they ought also fit us to the surrounding natural environment. These are emotions that we all live by; they are emotions that some of us live for.  Keywords:  emotions, passion, nature, social environment, cognitive processes, emotional processes.   Reprinted in Philosophy Gone Wild.

“Nature for Real: Is Nature a Social Construct?”  Pages 38-64 in Timothy D. J. Chappell, ed., The Philosophy of the Environment(Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 1997). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37188.    Six words are model the world we view. But how far are these words for real? (1) “Nature,” (2) “Environment,” (3) “Wilderness,” (4) “Science,” (5) “Earth,” and (6) “Value.” “The world” is variously “constituted” by diverse cultures in their coping strategies, including our Western culture–so we are much reminded– and the make-up of the words colors up what we see. More radically, many question whether humans can really know nature at all. If so, can we have a real environmental ethic? Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental values, biotic community, culture, diversity, conservation.

“Nature, Spirit, and Landscape Management.” Pages 17-24 in Beverly L. Driver, Daniel Dustin, Tony Baltic, Gary Eisner, and George Peterson, eds., Nature and the Human Spirit: Toward an Expanded Land Management Ethic (State College, PA: Venture Publishing Co., 1996).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41102.   What impressed the ancients is still impressive after biological science the rising up of life from the ground. Life has persistently seemed sacred, something mysterious, an animation otherwise as yet unknown in the universe. One of the values of landscapes is provided by spiritual responses to nature. One of the constitutional freedoms in the United States is religious freedom, but one cannot be free to practice his or her religion if one of the sources of its inspiration is unavailable. Religious persons bring a perspective of depth on wildland conservation, and if landscape managers do not find that such perspective of depth fits their usual categories of landscape management, then their perspectives need to be deepened, else they will miss important values on landscapes.  Keywords:   life, evolutionary biology, spirit, religious values, nature, landscape management, freedom of religion.   Anthology published by a U.S. Forest Service task force.

“On Behalf of Bioexuberance,” Garden 11, no. 4 (July/August 1987): 2-4, 31-32.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36767. “Please leave the flowers for others to enjoy” versus “Let the flowers live!” A maturing environmental ethic ought to reach a concern for endangered plants past a concern for persons. A plant, as a normative system, grows, reproduces, repairs its wounds, and resists death, engaged in the biological conservation of its identity and kind. What conservation biologists ought to do is respect plants for what they are in themselves–projects in conservation biology.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, respect for plants, conservation biology, evolutionary ecosystems.   Article commissioned by New York Botanical Gardens, in consortium with fourteen botanical gardens around the U. S., for their journal.

“Onko maisemien esteettisen arvioinnin pohjattava teiteeseen? [“Does Aesthetic Appreciation of Landscapes Need to be Science-Based?],”   Pages. 80-91 in Yrjö Sepänmaa, Liisa Heikkilä-Palo and Virpi Kaukio, eds., Maiseman kanssa kasvokkain (Looking toward the Landscape), (Helsinki: Maahenki Oy, 2007).   ISBN: 978-952-5652-02-4.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37119.  Text in Finnish.   Forests are aesthetically challenging because of a perennial, dynamic sense of deep time, experiencing an archetype of creation. Scientific appreciation of natural history is necessary though not sufficient for an intense, multisensory, participatory engagement when persons, immersed in forests, constitute their lived aesthetic experiences. Forests are sublime, evoking the sense of the sacred. Aesthetic appreciation in forests radically differs from that appropriate for artworks.   Keywords:   aesthetics, environment, response to nature, landscapes, natural history, theology.    Address at “Meeting in the Landscape,” the First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics,” Koli, Finland, June 1994.   Also published in English as: “Does Aesthetic Appreciation of Landscapes Need to be Science-Based?” British Journal of Aesthetics 35(1995):374-386.   An abbreviated media version is: Does Aesthethic Appreciation of Nature Need to be Science-Based? DVD. 22 minutes. Interview with Holmes Rolston III conducted by Christopher Stevens, University of Helsinki, March 25, 2009.  Online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37809.

“Our Duties to Endangered Species.”   Box essay, pages 30-31 in Gary K. Meffe and C. Ronald Carroll, eds., Principles of Conservation Biology (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer and Associates, 1994). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40514.   Few persons doubt that we have obligations concerning endangered species, because persons are helped or hurt by the condition of their environment, which includes a wealth of wild species, currently under alarming threat of extinction. Whether humans have duties directly to endangered species is a deeper question, important in both ethics and conservation biology, in both practice and theory. A rationale that centers on species worth to persons is anthropocentric; a rationale that includes their intrinsic and ecosystemic values is naturalistic. Many endangered species have no resource value, nor are they particularly important for the usual humanistic reasons: scientific study, recreation, ecosystem stability, and so on. Is there any reason to save such worthless species? An environmental ethics answers that species are good in their own right, whether or not they are good for anything. Keywords: duties to endangered species, value in nature.    Also in 2nd edition, 1997, pages 35-36. 3rd edition, Martha J. Groom, Gary K. Meffee, and C. Ronald Carroll, 2006, pages 116-117.

“Panglobalism and Pandemics: Ecological and Ethical Concerns,” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 78(2005):309-319.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37116.   A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital; and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature.   Keywords:  ecology, ecological health, human health, ecosystems, bioethics, globalism, nature.

“People, Population, Prosperity, and Place.”  Pages 35-38 in Noel J. Brown and Pierre Quiblier, eds., Ethics & Agenda 21: Moral Implications of a Global Consensus (New York: United Nations Publications, United Nations Environment Programme, 1994). ISBN 92-1-100526-4.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48098.   Ethical evaluation of the UN strategy document from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Earth Summit). Population growth, human health, and people living sustainably on their landscapes are the concerns of Chapters 5, 6, and 7, which follow the analyses of poverty and escalating consumption in Chapters 3 and 4. This leads to formulating policy in Chapter 8, concluding the social and economic section of Agenda 21. The world is a complicated place, reflected in this agenda, one of the longest international documents ever negotiated; but at risk of oversimplification we can sketch the ethical issues by a look a chronological graph of world population and a pie chart of world consumption.  Keywords:  population growth, sustainability, poverty, consumption, Agenda 21, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED.

“Perché studiare le etiche dell’ambiente?” [An Italian translation of “Why Study Environmental Ethics?”] Pages 72-75 in Matteo Andreozzi, ed., Etiche dell’Ambiente: Voci e Prospettive [Environmental Ethics: Voices and Perspectives] (Milan: LED Edizioni Universitarie, 2012). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79016. See English entry.

“Perpetual Perishing, Perpetual Renewal,” The Northern Review, number 28, Winter 2008, pages 111-123. Yukon College, Yukon.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36772.   Darwinian nature is in dialectic: conflict and resolution. Human life evolved out of such dialectical nature. If that began in Africa, it continues when humans migrate far North. Religious encounters with such nature, whatever their differences with Darwinism, also find that life is perpetually renewed in the midst of its perpetual perishing. Life is ever “conserved,” as biologists might say; life is ever “redeemed,” as theologians might say. In this generating of new life, nature is cruciform, beyond the dialectical. Such processes, set in their ecological settings, perennially transform disvalues in nature into prolific values, generating the global richness of evolutionary natural history and its exuberance of life. Such sombre beauty in life is nowhere better exemplified than in boreal and Arctic nature.   Keywords:   dialectical nature, ambivalence, cruciform nature, creative nature, Arctic/Boreal nature, survival.

“Philosophical Aspects of the Environmental Crisis.”  Pages 41-46 in Phillip O. Foss, ed., Environment and Colorado: A Handbook (Fort Collins Colorado: Environmental Resources Center, Colorado State University, 1973).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41107.  Ecosystem science is being often offered as an ultimate science that synthesizes even the arts and the humanities. Like the laws of personal health, the laws of ecosystemic health may be obeyed or broken, only to be reckoned with at length. The ecosciences are underscoring the continuities so as to humble the pride of the muscular West. Kept in its environmental context, our humanity is not absolutely “in” us, but is rather “in” our world dialogue. Humans may and must moderate or mind their world, yet the more competently and effectively they manipulate, the more urgently they must respect the worth of their Earth. Any human dominion ought to be a commonwealth that provides for the integrity of all its component members, with humans governing with care and love. Keywords: ecology and ethics, laws of nature, ecosystemic health, sustainability, human ecology, environmental management, environmental conservation, care for nature, value in nature, land ethic.   Also published in Philosophy Gone Wild.

“Philosophy” (Chapter 9) [Environmental Ethics in the Undergraduate Philosophy Curriculum].   Pages 206-234 in Jonathan Collett and Stephen J. Karakashian, eds., Greening the College Curriculum: A Guide to Environmental Teaching in the Liberal Arts (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1996).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/45060.  A chapter on teaching undergraduates environmental ethics in philosophy classes. This complements other chapters on anthropology, biology, economics, geography, history, literature, journalism, political science, and religion. Rationales, guidelines, sample plans for courses, annotated resources, both print and nonprint. Major literature in the field. Keywords:  environmental ethics, teaching, course materials, outlines, class syllabi.

“Philosophy and the Land Ethic,” in  Reflections: Newsletter of the Program for Ethics, Science, and the Environment, Oregon State University, Department of Philosophy, Special Issue 3, August 1998, p. 6. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70413.

“Preaching on the Environment,” JP Journal for Preachers 23 (no. 4, 2000):25-32.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37204.   Biblical faith originated with a land ethic. Within the covenant, keeping the commandments, the Hebrew people entered a promised land. Nature is the creative, generative powers on Earth. Spirit is the animating principle that raises up life from the ground. Christian citizens ought to join others shaping a public environmental ethic. Earth is promised planet, planet with promise, sacred, holy ground.   Keywords:  Christianity, Judaism, ecumenical covenant, ecological covenant, land ethics, justice, peace, integrity of creation, environmental ethics, ecosystems.   Translated into Chinese, “Huan-Ching Chiang-Chang,” in Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed. Tsu-Mei Chen (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 246-261.  ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0. See that entry.

“Preaching on the Wonder of Creation.” JP Journal for Preachers 34(no. 4, 2011):39-46.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/45061.  Both science and religion find a wonderland Earth. Biblical faith has the conviction that species originate when God ordered earth to “bring forth swarms of living creatures.” We know that biodiversity today much better than did they, but Bible writers would have rejoiced in this fuller creation. The Hebrews found a promised land; today we can think of an Earth with promise. Both science and religion encounter nature with awe: an awe-full sublime.   Keywords:  wonderland Earth, biodiversity, creation, Biblical accounts, promised land, promised Earth, awe in nature.

“Property Rights and Endangered Species,” University of Colorado Law Review 61(1990):283-306. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37455.    Human property rights have been well analyzed in legal and moral traditions, but human duties to endangered species are novel. The “adequate concern and conservation” that Congress in the Endangered Species Act makes imperative lies outside traditional legal property rights and outside classical ethical theory. The Act is visionary and implementing it is forcing seminal rethinking. We probe a tension between respect for life at the species level and respect for property.   Keywords: Endangered Species Act, Nature Conservancy, landowners, trustees, rare plants, conservation, regulations, animals, plants, economics, environmental ethics.

“Respect for Life: Can Zen Buddhism Help in Forming an Environmental Ethic?” In Zen Buddhism Today, No. 7, September 1989, pp. 11-30. Annual Report of the Kyoto Zen Symposium, Kyoto Seminar for Religious Philosophy, Institute for Zen Studies, Hanazono College and Kyoto University.  There are two copies of this annual report in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1984.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37117.   Zen Buddhism has an enviable respect for life. Buddhism promises to chasten human desires and thirsts, to fit humans into their sources, their surrounding world. But there is a series of challenges to Zen Buddhism. Compassion to wild animals? Buddha nature in a lotus flower? Saving endangered species and ecosystems? A challenge to Zen is to use its insights to help form an environmental ethic–East and West.    Keywords:  environmental ethics, Zen Buddhism, endangered species, ecosystems, Western Enlightenment, human-nonhuman boundary, value in nature.   Invited paper as distinguished lecturer at the Seventh Annual International Zen Symposium, Kyoto, Japan, March 1989. Translated into Chinese inZhexue Yicong (Philosophy Digest of Translation), (Journal of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing), 1994, Issue No. 5, September, pages 11-18. See that entry.

“Respect for Life: Counting What Singer Finds of No Account.” Pages 247-268 in Dale Jamieson, ed., Singer and His Critics (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1999).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39000.    Though to be commended for his concern for animals, Peter Singer has an inadequate environmental ethic. Beyond the higher animals, Singer insists, “there is nothing to be taken into account.” In fact, most of the biological world has yet to be taken into account: lower animals, insects, microbes, plants, species, ecosystems and their processes, and the global system of life on Earth. A deeper respect for life must value more directly all living things and the generative processes that sustain life at all its levels, from the genetic to the global.  Keywords:  Singer, Peter, 1946-, practical ethics, environmental ethics. Translated into German: “Respekt vor dem leben: das berücksichtigen, was Singer als belanglos ansieht.” Natur und Kultur: Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 2(no. 1, 2001):97-116. See that entry.

“Respekt vor dem leben: das berücksichtigen, was Singer als belanglos ansieht.”  Natur und Kultur: Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 2(no. 1, 2001):97-116.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41099.   German translation of “Respect for Life: Counting What Singer Finds of No Account.”  Pages 247-268 in Dale Jamieson, ed., Singer and His Critics (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1999). See that entry.

“Responsible Man in Reformed Theology.” The Scottish Journal of Theology (Oxford University Press) 23(no. 2, May, 1970):129-159.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/86380.   There is an original offprint in the Rolston Library in the Eddy Library, another copy in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed under 1970.

“Rights and Responsibilities on the Home Planet,” Yale Journal of International Law 18 (no. 1, 1993):251-279.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39373.    “Nature” refers to natural forces operating independently of deliberate human activity, that is, spontaneous or wild nature. Human cultural processes interrupt such natural forces. Little pristine nature remains, though some marine areas, Antarctica, or designated wildernesses can approximate it. At the same time, spontaneous natural forces everywhere permeate the cultures superimposed on them. Global natural forces – the ocean currents, the changing seasons, photosynthesis and oxygen balance, regional ecosystems – though not beyond the adverse affects of human action, still proceed spontaneously. Spontaneous “nature” exists within humans in the form of biochemical processes that proceed without deliberation, but the most characteristic property of humans is to build cultures, which typically rebuild spontaneous nature, intentionally redirecting the course of nature to human utility. Humans arrive in the world rather unfinished by nature, and cultural education and formation, coupled with active career choice, largely complete our identity. By contrast, identities in nonhumans are genetically determined. In short, human nature is to be artificial, or cultured. In one sense nothing that humans do breaks any laws of nature; we simply rearrange natural forces to our benefit. In this sense, a rocket is as natural as an oak tree, Manhattan as natural as Yellowstone Park. But this concept is not helpful in the present analysis, since an Earth destroyed by humans would be as natural an event as an Earth with several billion years of natural history before humans arrived, or an Earth carefully conserved by humans thereafter.  Keywords:   environmental ethics, rights,nature,conservation.    Lecture at the Symposium on Human Rights and the Environment, Yale Law School and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, April 1992.   Reprinted in Steve Vanderheiden, ed., Environmental Rights (Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2012), pages 251-279. Short version reprinted in Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 28(1993):425-439.

“Rio Declaration.” Volume 2, pages 201-202 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, editors, J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale, 2009).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38988.  The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) produced a short document titled Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Declaration has since been signed by almost every nation on Earth. It begins: “Human beings are at the centre of concerns…” going on to say that people are entitled to “a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.” Development is the dominating motif; environmental conservation is subsidiary. Some key themes : polluter pays; responsibility for spillover damage; inter-generational equity; public participation; a precautionary approach; environmental impact assessments; differential responsibilities; healthy environments. Keywords:   Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, environmental ethics.

“Saving Creation: Faith Shaping Environmental Policy.” Harvard Law and Policy Review 4(2010):121-148.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37706.    Religious faith can make a unique contribution to environmental policy. Typically, legislators might expect to formulate a science-based environmental policy. But scientific reasoning is able to offer only partial and value-free guidance. Science, by its very nature, cannot offer enough guidance for the challenges of contemporary environmental policy. Religious faith and religious communities can, and already have begun to, offer precisely what science lacks: a value-laden, unified understanding of creation, humankind, and our obligations as stewards of the Earth. I make this case here by assessing the religious traditions in the United States and Europe, particularly Western monotheism, especially Christianity.   Keywords:  science, religion, Christianity, ecology, faith, National Environmental Policy Act, management, sustainability, health, quality of life.

“Saving Nature, Feeding People, and the Foundations of Ethics,” Environmental Values 7(1998):349-357.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37701.  Rolston’s response to three critical articles directed at his: “Feeding People versus Saving Nature.”   Pages 248-267 in William Aiken and Hugh LaFollette, eds., World Hunger and Morality, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996).   Rolston replies to Robin Attfield’s and Andrew Brennan’s criticisms of his claims that sometimes one ought to conserve nature preferentially to caring for the poor. Tiger conservation in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal, does and ought to give tiger conservation priority over some of the desires for development of locally impoverished peoples. Ben Minteer argues that nature conservation ought to be “culturally-occupied”; Rolston argues for respect for intrinsic value in nature.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal, Bengal tigers, Asian rhinoceros, endangered species, protected habitats, conservation, sustainability.

“Science and Religion in the Face of the Environmental Crisis.” Pages 376-397 in Roger S. Gottlieb, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37195.  Both science and religion are challenged by the environmental crisis; both to re-evaluate the natural world, and each to re-evaluate its dialogue with the other. Both are thrown into researching theory and practice in the face of an upheaval unprecedented in planetary history. Life on Earth is in jeopardy owing to the behavior of the only species that is either scientific or religious, the only species claiming privilege as the “wise species,” Homo sapiens.   Keywords:   nature, humans, culture, ecology, theology, value in nature, conservation, environmental ethics.

“Science-Based vs. Traditional Ethics.” Pages 63-72 in J. Ronald Engel and Joan Engel, eds., Ethics of Environment and Development. London: Belhaven Press and Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1990.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37810.    Do science-based values occupy a privileged position as criteria against which traditional cultural values are to be tested? Science-based values are plural and traditional values even more pluralist. Cases examined here cross a spectrum from conflict to complementarity and criticism. Authentic human life ought to go beyond both traditional cultures and science as we know it, reaching a global ethics. Respect for the community of life on Earth–ecologically and culturally–is the test of an ethic for the world.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, cultural values, conflict, complementarity, criticism, humans, Earth, culture, nature.   Reprinted, in Chinese translation, pages 259-275 in Ch’iu Jen-tsung, ed., Kuo wai tzy jan k’o hsüeh che hsüeh wen t’i (Philosophical Problems in Foreign Natural Science). Chung-kuo she hui k’o hsüeh, 1994 (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press, 1994).  ISBN 7-5004-1514-1.

“Science, Religion, and Ecology,” entry in Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Volume 1, The Spirit of Sustainability, ed. Willis Jenkins. Great Barrington, Mass: Berkshire Publishing Group, 2010), pages 353-356.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38371.    Science, with its theories of natural selection and equilibrium, and religion, with its biblical descriptions of land forever flowing with “milk and honey,” have viewed nature as ever-renewing.  Both have prioritized growth and its resulting abundance.  As our twenty-first-century environmental crises challenge these concepts, scientists can teach us to sustain the environment while the motivations of biblical stewardship remind us to treasure Earth’s biodiversity and celebrate creation. Keywords:  science, religion, the Earth, environmental crises, sustainability, sustainable biosphere, stewardship.

“Soiden estethkan ekologinen perusta (Aesthetics in the Swamps).”  Pages 43-57 in Kirsi Hakala, ed., Suo on kaunis ( The Aesthetics of Bogs and Peatlands ) (Helsinki: Maahenki Oy, 1999).  ISBN 952-5328-01-5.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37209.  Text in Finnish.  Wetlands are misunderstood landscapes, typically experienced negatively as swamps, sloughs, and mires. Understanding wetlands ecology, knowledge of specialized flora there, their unusual adaptations, and their diversity can enrich aesthetic appreciation of these landscapes. Aesthetic experiences include a sense of the primeval, admiration for ingenious and odd solutions to the challenges of wetlands living, of life persisting in the midst of its perpetual perishing.  Keywords:  muskegs, wetland ecosystems, swamps, survival, wetland ecology.   Lecture given at Third International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics, Ilomantsi, Finland, June 3-6, 1998.  Also published in English as: “Aesthetics in the Swamps,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine(University of Chicago; Johns Hopkins University) 43(2000):584-597. See that entry.

“Sustainable Development and Sustainable Biosphere.” Pages 91-101 in Jack Lee, ed., Sustainability and Quality of Life. Palo Alto, CA: Ria University Press, 2010. Distributed by Ingram. ISBN 978-0-9743472-1-9.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40516.  In sustainability debates, there are two poles, complements yet opposites. Economy can be prioritized, with the environment contributory to economics at the center. This is sustainable development, widely advocated, including statements by the United Nations. At the other pole, the environment is prioritized. A sustainable biosphere model demands a baseline quality of environment, respect for the integrity of natural systems. The economy must be worked out within such quality of life in a quality environment. This is advocated by the Ecological Society of America. Neither economics nor ecology is well equipped to analyze this issue ethically.  Keywords:  sustainability, sustainable development, sustainable biosphere, environmental conservation, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED, Ecological Society of America.   Originally a lecture given at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual Meeting, 2009, Chicago: Our Planet and Its Life: Origins and Futures.

“Technology versus Nature: What is Natural” in CPTS Ends and Means: Journal of the University of Aberdeen Centre for Philosophy, Technology & Society 2(no. 2, Spring 1998):3-14. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48100.   “Nature” understood as including everything that exists compared with. “culture” distinguished from “nature.” Nature surrounds and is the environmental support of culture. Natural events compared with unnatural events; artificial objects compared with artifactual objects. Intentions of the planetary mangers. Is nature already at an end? Always, there is once and future nature.   Keywords:  nature, culture, artifacts, artificial, natural and unnatural, technology, planetary managers, end of nature, once and future nature.

“The Bible and Ecology,” Interpretation: Journal of Bible and Theology 50(1996):16-26.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/35682.   The Bible is not a book of ecology. It does recommend a human ecology, accentuating life in justice and love that makes possible a good (righteous), long (sustainable) life in a promised, promising land. Contemporary readers encounter claims about how to value nature, the earthen genesis with intrinsic goodness, blessed by God. That vision is biocentric, anthropocentric, and theocentric. The Hebrew scriptures can be a catalyst in our ecological crisis.   Keywords:   The Bible, ecological science, human values, ecology, natural value, environmental ethics.   Translated into Chinese, “Sheng-Ching yu Sheng-Tai-Shueh,” in Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed. Tsu-Mei Chen (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 208-213. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“The Challenge of the New Millennium. Holmes Rolston III Asks Whether Reasoned Behavior [Governing Science] Is Possible in the Midst of Self-Seeking Ideologies and Ancient Appetites,” TPM The Philosophers’ Magazine. TPM The Philosophers’ Magazine (London: Royal Institute of Philosophy), Issue 59, 4th Quarter 2012, pp. 30-37. Also available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/80800. This article resulted from a lecture, “Concerns Concerning Biosciences, Human Nature, and Governing Science,” given, April 13, 2012, at a Seminar, Governing Science: Technological Progress, Ethical Norms, and Democracy, held at Princeton University, Department of Politics, April 13-14, 2012 Rolston lecture. That lecture is available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70421.

“The Future of Environmental Ethics,” Teaching Ethics (Society for Ethics Across the Curriculum):8(no. 1, Fall 2007):1-27.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37107.   The environment is on the world agenda, also on the ethical frontier, for the foreseeable future. Environmental ethics is about saving things past, still present. Environmental ethics is equally about future nature, without analogy in our past. Living at one of the ruptures of history, modern cultures threaten the stability, beauty, and integrity of Earth, and thereby of the cultures superposed on Earth. Environmental ethics must find a satisfactory fit for humans in the larger communities of life on Earth.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental justice, life on Earth, environmental values, environmental alarms, biological controls, consumption, sustainable development, global development, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.     Also published: pages 561-574 in David R. Keller, ed., Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions (Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).

“The Human Standing in Nature: Fitness in the Moral Overseer,” in Wayne Sumner, Donald Callen, and Thomas Attig, eds., Values and Moral Standing (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Studies in Applied Philosophy, 1986), volume 8, pages 90-101.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37198.    Humans are the creatures that have evolved a conscience–stand-outs in the system in which they stand. This conscience can wisely direct the magnificent, fearful power of the brain and hand. An environmental ethic tries to maximize conscience in order to maximize fitness in the environment. Humans are worldviewers, with a sense of storied residence. Our role is to live out a spacetime ethic, a placetime ethic. In this ethic, knowledge is power, as also is love. There is a penultimate place for superior human standing, and the ultimate lesson is that the meek inherit the Earth. In this sense too, the fittest survive.   Keywords: fitness, morality, biology, ethics, behavior, ecosystems, environmental ethics, humans.

“The Irreversibly Comatose: Respect for the Subhuman in Human Life.”  Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7(1982):337-354.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70412. In the case of the irreversibly comatose patient, though no personal consciousness remains, some moral duty is owed the remaining biological life. Such an ending to human life, if pathetic, is also both intelligible and meaningful in a biological and evolutionary perspective. By distinguishing between the human subjective life and the spontaneous objective life, we can recognize a naturalistic principle in medical ethics, contrary to a current tendency to defend purely humanistic norms. This principle has applications in clinical care in the definition of death, in the use of life support therapy, in distinguishing ordinary from extraordinary therapy, in evaluating euthanasia, and in the extent of appropriate medical intervention in terminal cases. There is also a copy of the original issue in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1982. Keywords:  aging, comatose patients, respect for life.

“The Land Ethic at the Turn of the Millennium,” Biodiversity and Conservation 9(2000):1045-1058.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37121.  Aldo Leopold’s land ethic has proved more complex and subtle than he envisioned. Nevertheless Leopold launched what, facing a new millennium, has proved urgent on the global agenda: an environmental ethics concerned in theory and practice about appropriate respect for values carried by the natural world and human responsibilities for the sustaining of these values. A blending of anthropocentric and biocentric values continues to be vital. These duties toward nature involve analysis of ecosystem integrity and evolutionary dynamism at both scientific and philosophical levels; any responsible environmental policy must be based on plausible accounts of ecosystems and a sustainable biosphere. Humans and this planet have entwined destinies. We now envision an Earth ethic beyond the land ethic.   Keywords:  Aldo Leopold, earth ethics, environmental ethics, land ethic, naturalized ethics.  In a theme issue: Concepts of Nature: The Social Context and Ethical Implications of Ecology.   Reprinted, pages 392-399, in Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, 3rd ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004).

“The Nonhuman Dimensions in Wildlife,” Human Dimensions in Wildlife, 8, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 6-8.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48097. There are two copies of the original issue in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1989.
In understanding the human dimensions in wildlife, we want to learn the sociological and psychological side of wildlife management. But we will not get the focus right without the wildlife ecology side. We must get these human dimensions superposed on the right natural facts and the right account of values carried by nature. The human dimensions in wildlife are entwined with the nonhuman dimensions in wildlife. Keywords:  wildlife, human dimensions, wildlife values, sociology of wildlife, psychology of wildlife.

“The Pasqueflower” Natural History (Magazine of the American Museum of Natural History) 88 (no. 4, April 1979): 6-16.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37703.   Philosophical reflection on the pasqueflower as a floral sign of natural meaning. The Pasqueflower surviving through winter, blooming at the Pasque, Easter, offers a glimpse of the precocious exuberance of life, a token of the covenant of life to continue in beauty despite the wintry storms. To pause at first encountering it in spring is to find a moment of truth, a moment of memory and promise. Let winters come, life will flower on as long as Earth shall last.  Keywords: spring of life, fruition, exuberance, Pasque, Passover, Easter, flowers, flower children, winter, Rocky Mountains. There is a copy of the original issue of Natural History in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper files, filed in 1979.
Also reprinted in Philosophy Gone Wild.  Reprinted in Wilderness, vol. 29, no. 30, July 1990 (South Africa, Wilderness Leadership School), pp. 5-7.  Reprinted, translated into Chinese, “Yu-Yueh-Chieh chih Hua” in Tzu-mei Chen, ed., Introduction to Environmental Ethics (Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men) (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 192-200. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“The Preservation of Natural Value in the Solar System.”  Pages 140-182 in Eugene C. Hargrove, ed., Beyond Spaceship Earth: Environmental Ethics and the Solar System (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1986), pp. 140-182.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37453.  Earth is, by one account, an accident, of great value in contrast with valueless astronomical worlds. The universe is, by another account, fine tuned with anthropic features that anticipate life and mind on Earth. Projective nature, a third model, interprets nature as an inventive system, driving the spontaneous appearance of diversity, order, and value. If so, we ought to preserve in solarplanetary nature: (1) places spontaneously worthy of proper names, (2) places of exotic extremes, (3) of historical interest, (4) of creative potential, (5) with aesthetic properties, and (6) of transformative value.   Keywords: Earth, space, ecosystems, accidental nature, anthropic nature, solar-planetary nature, preserving nature, creativity, universe.    Originally presented at conference on “Environmental Ethics and the Solar System,” June 5-8, 1985, University of Georgia, Athens, and sponsored by EVIST, National Science Foundation, and the Planetary Society.

“The River of Life: Past, Present, and Future.”  Pages 123-132 in Ernest Partridge, ed., Responsibilities to Future Generations (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1981).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37179.   A river of life is imagery that can launch critical reflection. Life is a current, a naturally impelled flow that is energetically maintained over time. Life is a continuous and ceaseless stream that transcends the individual. In this processive on rolling we can find a confluence of the actual and the potential, the self and the other, the human and the natural, the present and the historical, and the is and the ought.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, conservation, moral aspects, ethical aspects, biosystems, life processes.
Translated into Italian: “Il fiume di vita: passato, presente e futuro,” Aut Aut: rivista di filosofia e di cultura, Issue 316-317, July-October 2003, pages 139-144. Translated by Roberto Peverelli.  Also available online at:  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39070.
Translated into Chinese, “Sheng-Ming chih He: Kuo-Chu, Hsien-Tsai, yu Wei-Lai,” in Tsu-Mei Chen, ed., Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics) (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 174-189. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  Also available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38363

“The Wilderness Idea Reaffirmed,” Environmental Professional 13(1991):370-377.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37206.    The concept of wilderness is coherent and vital for the protection of intrinsic natural values. Baird Callicott’s nondiscriminating account of humans as entirely natural is a metaphysical confusion. Wild nature differs from human culture in radical ways. Kinds of biodiversity can be protected by wilderness designation that are doubtfully protected by rural indigenous peoples. Nor does wilderness designation lead to complacency about sustainable development.  There is a copy of the original issue in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives.   Keywords:  wilderness, environmental values, human culture, wild nature, ecosystems, biodiversity.
Variously reprinted, including: Lori Gruen and Dale Jamieson, eds., Reflecting on Nature: Readings in Environmental Philosophy(New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 265-278;   James E. Coufal and Charles M. Spuches, Environmental Ethics in Practice: Developing a Personal Ethic. Materials for Natural Resources Management Instructors (Syracuse, NY: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1995); John Lemons, ed., Readings from The Environmental Profesional: Natural Resources (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science Publishers, 1995), pages 108-115; Andrew Brennan, ed., The Ethics of the Environment (Aldershot, Hampshire, U.K.: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1995), pages 445-452.

“Treating Animals Naturally?” Between the Species 5(1989):131-137.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40517.  We treat animals naturally. Humans share some nature with nonhuman animals. But attributes appear that are qualitatively and quantitatively not present in nonhumans. Humans are moral in culture and we can further ask how humans should treat animals, who are morally considerable though not in culture. They should be treated naturally, that is, recognizing their intrinsic animal natures and their ecological places in the world. The article is a reply to criticisms of Rolston by Peter Wenz.   Keywords:   animals, duties to animals, domesticated animals, wild animals, agriculture, ecology.

“Umwelt-Tugendethik: Die halbe Warheit – Sie für das Ganze zu halten, ist aber gefährlich (Environmental Virtue Ethics: Half the Truth but Dangerous as a Whole),” in Natur und Kultur : Transdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für ökologische Nachhaltigkeit 6/2 (2005):93-112.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41098.   German translation of article originally published, pages 61-78 in Ronald Sandler and Philip Cafaro, eds., Environmental Virtue Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2005). See that entry.

“Using Water Naturally,” Illahee: Journal for the Northwest Environment 11 (nos. 1 & 2, 1995):94-98. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48101.  Using water naturally can seem to have little to do with using water ethically. Contemporary water use is by prior appropriation, where seniors have rights to water they first took. This develops into water use economically, when water is a property right that can be traded in markets. Neither use considers a still more fundamental need to use water ecosystemically. Many present and planned water uses are unnatural, and unwise. Asking about using water naturally can better orient us to what we ought to do, both prudentially and morally.   Keywords:  water management, ethics, economics of water, prior appropriation, water rights.
Other versions of this paper are:
“Using Water Naturally,” Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado, Western Water Policy Project, Discussion Series Paper No. 9, 1991 (with copy in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives);
Kathleen C. Klein, ed., Seeking an Integrated Approach to Watershed Management in the South Platte Basin (Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, Colorado State University, 1993), pages 3-8;
Building Clean Water Communities: Proceedings, Sixth Annual Nonpoint Source Pollution Management Workshop, 1998, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 7, March 23-25, Lawrence, KS, pages 70-84, Judy Scherff, Coordinator (with copy in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1998).

“Vaerdi i naturen og vaerdinens natur [Value in Nature and the Nature of Value],” in: Merte Sørensen, Finn Arler and Martin Ishøy, eds., Miljø og etik (Environment and Ethics) (Aarhus, Denmark: NSI Press, Nordisk Sommeruniversitet, 1997), pages 17-38.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37452.  Danish translation of article originally published in Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds.,Philosophy and the Natural Environment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pages 13-30. See that entry.

“Value in Nature and the Nature of Value.” In Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pages 13-30. Royal Institute of Philosophy, Annual Supplement Volume. Invited conference address, Royal Society of Philosophy, Annual Conference, University of Wales, Cardiff, July 18-21, 1993.     http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37191.
In modern Western thought, “value” is often thought not to exist in wild nature; it is bestowed on nature by human preferences. This prevailing account is too anthropocentric. In nature, animals are able to value their lives; they too can have their preferences satisfied. Although nothing matters to organisms such as plants, matters can be vital for them. Species are historical forms of life defended over generations. Ecosystems are valuable, where this means, “able to generate value,” such as occurs with the evolution and ecological support of organisms, animals, and humans.
Earth, taken as earth, dirt, seems of little intrinsic value; but Earth, the home planet, is systemically valuable, and importantly the ground of all value. “Nature,” etymologically, is “to generate” or “give birth.” The biodiversity generated by nature is valuable in two senses: this is “able to be valued” by humans; there is also in nature a capacity or ability to generate diverse values. Socrates said that the unexamined life is not worth living; life in an unexamined world is not worthy living either. Keywords: environmental ethics. environmental values, humans, species, organisms, ecosystems, philosophy of nature.
Reprinted, translated into French as: “La valeur dans la nature et la nature de la valeur ”  Pages 153-186 in Hicham-Stéphane Afeissa, editor and translator, Éthique de l’environment: Nature, valeur, respect (Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2007).http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37451.
Reprinted, translated into German as, “Werte in der Natur und die Natur der Werte (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value),” pages 247-270 in Angelika Krebs, ed., Naturethik. Grundtexte der gegenwärtigen tier- und ökoethischen Diskussion (Ethics of Nature: Fundamental Texts Discussing Contemporary Animal and Ecological Ethics) (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1997). ISBN 3-518-28862-8.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37450.
Reprinted, translated into Danish as, “Vaerdi i naturen og vaerdinens natur,” in: Merte Sørensen, Finn Arler and Martin Ishøy, eds., Miljø og etik (Environment and Ethics) (Aarhus, Denmark: NSI Press, Nordisk Sommeruniversitet, 1997), pages 17-38.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37452.
Translated into Chinese, “Ziran de jiazhi yu jiazhi di benzhi (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value),” Zi ran bian lun fa yet jiu (Studies in Dialectics of Nature) 15(no. 2, February, 1999):42-46. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing. ISSN 1000-8934. Translated by Liu Er.  There is a copy of this issue in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1999.  Translated into Chinese (second time), “Ziran de jiazhi yu jiazhi de benzhi (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value).   Pages 5-12 in Ye Ping, ed., Huanjing yu kechixu fazhan yanjiu (For Environment and Sustainable Development). Harbin, China: Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press, 1998. ISBN 7-5388-3508-3.   Selected proceedings of First All-China Conference on Environment and Development, held in Harbin, China, October 20-24, 1998.
Reprinted, translated into Polish, “Wartosci w Naturze i Natura Wartrosci (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value,” shorter version in print ODRA, December 2002, in Zielony paradygmat (Green Paradigm) supplement (ISSN 0472-5182).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37449.
Summarized with commentary in Greek by Panagiotis Perros, Philosophy, National University in Athens, Greece, 2004.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37200.

“Values Deep in the Woods,” American Forests 94, nos. 5 & 6 (May/June 1988):33, 66-69.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37118. There are two original issue copies in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1988.   In a forest, as on a desert or the tundra, the realities of nature cannot be ignored. The forest is an archetype of the foundations of the world. Humans evolved in forests and savannas, and classical cultures often remained in contact with forests. In modern cultures, the growth of technology has made the forest increasingly a commodity, decreasingly an archetype. That results in profound value puzzlements. What values lie deep in the forest? Keywords:  forests, savannahs, environmental values, managed forests, threatened species, endangered species, biological conservation.
Also published as: “Values Deep in the Woods: The Hard-to-Measure Benefits of Forest Preservation,” pages 315-319 inEconomic and Social Development: A Role for Forests and Forestry Professionals–Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, 1987 National Convention, Minneapolis. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters, 1988 (Invited lecture at the annual convention of the Society of American Foresters, October 1987, Minneapolis, MN). There is a copy of the published proceedings in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1987.
Also published in B. L. Driver, ed., Contributions of Social Sciences to Multipe-Use Management: An Update (Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Range and Experiment Station, 1990), USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-196, October, pages 6-19. There is a copy of this report in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1990.
Reprinted in The Trumpeter (Canada) 6, no. 2 (Spring 1989):39-41. There is one original issue copy of this issue of The Trumpeter in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1988.
Reprinted in Peter C. List, ed., Environmental Ethics and Forestry: A Reader (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000), pages 75-79.
Reprinted in Alan Drengson and Duncan Taylor, eds., Wild Foresting: Practising Nature’s Wisdom (Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2009), pages 12-16.

“Values Gone Wild,” Inquiry 26(1983):181-207.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36764.   Wilderness valued as mere resource for human-interest satisfaction is challenged in favor of wilderness as a productive source, in which humans have roots, but which also yields wild neighbors and aliens with intrinsic value. Wild value is storied achievement in an evolutionary ecosystem, with instrumental and intrinsic, organismic and systemic values intermeshed. Survival value is reconsidered in this light. Changing cultural appreciations of values in wilderness can transform and relativize our judgments about appropriate conduct there. A final valued element in wildness is its idiographic historical particularity, and most surprising is the emergence of a novel morality when humans learn to let values go wild.  Keywords:   environmental values, wilderness, ecosystems, survival value, wild value.
Reprinted inin Susan Armstrong and Richard Botzler, eds., Environmental Ethics: Convergence and Divergence (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), pages 56-65.  Also published in Philosophy Gone Wild.

“Values in Nature,” Environmental Ethics 3(1981):113-128.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36775.  Nature is examined as a carrier of values. Despite problems of subjectivity and objectivity in value assignments, values are actualized in human relationships with nature, sometimes by (human) constructive activity depending on a natural support, sometimes by a sensitive, if an interpretive, appreciation of the characteristics of natural objects. Ten areas of values associated with nature are recognized: (1) economic value, (2) life support value, (3) recreational value, (4) scientific value, (5) aesthetic value, (6) life value, (7) diversity and unity values, (8) stability and spontaneity values, (9) dialectical value, and (10) sacramental value. Each is analyzed and illustrated with particular reference to the objective precursors of value as these are described by natural science.   Keywords: value in nature, valuation, wilderness, valuational education.  There is an original issue in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1981.
Reprinted, translated into Finnish, “Arvot luonnossa [Values in Nature]” in Markku Oksanen and Marjo Rauhala-Hayes, eds.,Ympäristöfilosofia: Kirjoituksia ympäristönsuojelun eettisistä perusteista (Environmental Philosophy: Critical Sources in Environmental Theory and Ethics (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, Oy Yliopistokustannus, Finnish University Press, 1997), pages 205-224.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37708.
Reprinted, translated into Chinese by Yu Goping, Northeast Forestry University. Information of Ecophilosophy, an occasional publication of the Research Office in Ecophilosophy of the Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 1989, No. 2.   Also published inPhilosophy Gone Wild.

“Valuing Wildlands,” Environmental Ethics 7(1985):23-48.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/36768.   Valuing wildlands is complex. (1) In a philosophically oriented analysis, I distinguish seven meaning levels of value, individual preference, market price, individual good, social preference, social good, organismic, and ecosystemic, and itemize twelve types of value carried by wildlands, economic, life support, recreational, scientific, genetic diversity, aesthetic, cultural symbolization, historical, character building, therapeutic, religious, and intrinsic. (2) I criticize contingent valuation efforts to price these values. (3) I then propose an axiological model, which interrelates the multiple levels and types of value, and some principles for wildland management policy.  Keywords: value of wildlands, wilderness, valuation, taxonomy of values.
Reprinted in R. Kerry Turner, Kenneth Button, and Peter Nijkamp, eds. Ecosystems and Nature: Economics, Science and Policy(Cheltenham, Gloucester, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Co., 1999), pages 463-488.
Reprinted in J. Baird Callicott and Clare Palmer, eds., Environmental Philosophy: Critical Concepts in the Environment (London: Routledge, 2005), vol. 3, pp. 320-346.   Also published in Philosophy Gone Wild.

“Van-e környezeti etika [Is There an Ecological Ethic]?” in Lásló Molnár, ed., Környezeti etika (Environmental Ethics) (Budapest: Technical University of Budapest, 1996).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48076.   Translation into Hungarian of: “Is There an Ecological Ethic?” first published in Ethics: An International Journal of Social and Political Philosophy 85(1975):93-109.  See that entry.  Molnar taught environmental ethics in Budapest in Hungary for a number of years. He prepared an anthology for his classes, translated Rolston, “Is There an Ecological Ethic?” and put it in his manuscript anthology. This is not a published work.

“Wartosci w Naturze i Natura Wartrosci (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value),” shortened version in print in ODRA, December 2002, in Zielony paradygmat (Green Paradigm) supplement (ISSN 0472-5182).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37449.  Translation into Polish of “Value in Nature and the Nature of Value,” in Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pages 13-30. Royal Institute of Philosophy, Annual Supplement Volume.

“Werte in der Natur und die Natur der Werte (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value),” pages 247-270 in Angelika Krebs, ed.,Naturethik. Grundtexte der gegenwärtigen tier- und ökoethischen Diskussion (Ethics of Nature: Fundamental Texts Discussing Contemporary Animal and Ecological Ethics) (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1997),. ISBN 3-518-28862-8.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37450. Translation into German of “Value in Nature and the Nature of Value,” first published in Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pages 13-30. Royal Institute of Philosophy, Annual Supplement Volume. See that entry.

“Wetlands.” Volume 2, pages 397-400 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, editors, J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman (Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Gale, 2009). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38989.  Wetlands are found on every continent except Antarctica, about six percent of the land surface of the Earth. Though sometimes transient, wetlands are often long-lived and a form of landscape that Earth has regularly produced over the epochs of natural history. Wetlands may be the most threatened of all landscape types, also perhaps the most misunderstood. “Swamp”, “bog”, “mire” have negative connotations. Scientific understanding of wetlands has led to their better appreciation. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (commonly called the Ramsar Convention) has become increasingly important. The integrity of wetlands is closely linked to human well-being.   Keywords: wetlands, Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, Ramsar Convention.

“What Do We Mean by the Intrinsic Value and Integrity of Plants and Animals?” Pages 5-10 in David Heaf and Johannes Wirz, eds.,Genetic Engineering and the Intrinsic Value and Integrity of Plants and Animals, Proceedings of a Workshop at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, UK. Dornach, Switzerland: Ifgene, International Forum for Genetic Engineering, 2002.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39371.   There is integrity in any life that has a good of its kind and is good in its kind of place, with a biological identity sought, conserved, reproduced in species lines, and fitted into its niche in an ecosystem. Ecosystems are places of value capture and transformation. When humans appear, the only animal able critically to evaluate its options in behavior, such value capture can require justification. Humans may and must capture and transform natural values genetic, organismic, specific, ecosystemic. This is both permissible and required, but it requires justification proportionately to the loss of integrity and value in the natural world as this is traded for value gain integrated into richness in culture.   Keywords:  integrity, intrinsic value, good of its kind, biological identity, value capture, genetic modification, GMOs, nature and culture, ecosystems. Keynote address at the conference.

“What Is a Gene? From Molecules to Metaphysics,” Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27(2006):471-497.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37122.   Mendelian genes have become molecular genes, with increasing puzzlement about locating them, due to increasing complexity in genomic webworks. Genome science finds modular and conserved units of inheritance, identified as homologous genes. Such genes are cybernetic, transmitting information over generations; this too requires multi-leveled analysis, from DNA transcription to development and reproduction of the whole organism. Genes are conserved; genes are also dynamic and creative in evolutionary speciation–most remarkably producing humans capable of wondering about what genes are. Keywords: cybernetic genes, genetic identity, intentionality in genes, mendelian, molecular, searching genes.

“What Is our Duty to Nature?”, one-page box essay, p. 681 in William K. Purves, David Sandava, Gordon H. Orians, and H. Craig Heller, Life: The Science of Biology, 7th ed. (Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates; W. A. Freeman, 2004).http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37177.  Environmental ethics seeks appropriate respect for values in and duties regarding nature. If people have a right to life, they have a right to a quality environment. Further, environmental ethics becomes more inclusive, concerned about whales, whooping cranes, ancient forests, Earth threatened by global warming. Science alone does not teach us what we most need to know about nature: how to value it. Still, biology confronts every biologist with an urgent moral concern: caring for life on Earth. Ought not biologists above all celebrate Earth’s biodiversity?   Keywords: environmental ethics, environmental values, conservation, biodiversity.

“What Is Responsible Management of Private Rangeland?” Pages 39-49 in Larry D. White, ed., Private Property Rights and Responsibilities of Rangeland Owners and Managers (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 1995), . Proceedings from a conference of the Texas Section of the Society for Range Management.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40515.    The rangeland manager should examine not just this or that forty acres, or four thousand acres of private land. One is managing in the context of landscape wide ecosystems. Do you want to manage nature? Or do you seek an increased quality of life in habitat? Nature in that sense is not a resource to be managed, but a home where we reside. Dealing with an acre or two of real estate, perhaps even with hundreds or thousands of acres, we can think that the earth belongs to us, as private property holders. Dealing with a landscape, we can think that the earth belongs to us, as citizens of the country geographically located there. But even on landscape scales we pass from a sense of what belongs to us to a sense of belonging in a place.   Keywords:  range management, residence on landscapes, sense of place, natural resources, ecosystems.

“Whose Woods These Are. Are Genetic Resources Private Property or Global Commons?” Earthwatch, vol. 12, no. 3 (March/April 1993): 17-18.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37120.  Wild plant species, seeds, and germplasm have been long considered in the public domain, not owned by any nation. Developing nations are now claiming ownership by the country of origin. Yet biotic resources are not evidently subject to ownership, if one refers to the species as natural kinds. Sovereign nations may control access to their territories and own individual plants and animals. But as species, those species belong to us all.   Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity, sovereign rights, genetic resources, germplasm.

“Why Study Environmental Ethics?” In David R. Keller, ed., Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions (Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2010), pages 40 41. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79015. Study environmental ethics to figure out who you are, where you are, and what you ought to do. “The unexamined life is not worth living.” But Socrates avoided nature, thinking it profitless. “The country places and trees won’t teach me anything.” Socrates was wrong. I found that out in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Life in an unexamined world is not worthy living either. Become a three-dimensional person. One needs experience of the urban, and the rural, and the wild. You don’t want to live a de-natured life. Study environmental ethics to get put in your place.

“Wild Animals and Ethical Perspectives.” Pages 603-606 in Marc Bekoff, ed., Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, ABC Clio, 2010.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48078.   Few ethicists doubt that humans have duties toward domestic animals, but the question of duties to wild animals is more vexed. Leading issues surround hunting and trapping, animal suffering, appropriate levels of management intervention, poisoning, habitat degradation, feral animals, restoration, and endangered species. Duties to wild animals, if they involve care, also involve non-interference, sometimes called hands-off management. Compassion is not the only consideration; and in environmental ethics it plays a different role than in a humanist ethics. Animals live in the wild, subject to natural selection, and the integrity of the species is a result of these selective pressures. To intervene artificially is not to produce any benefit for the good of the kind, although it would benefit an individual bison or whale.  Human beings, by contrast, live in culture, where the forces of natural selection are relaxed, and a different ethic is appropriate. Keywords:  hunting, trapping, animal management, animal suffering, let nature take its course, compassion, domestic versus wild animals.  An earlier version is: “Wild Animals, Duties to,” pages 362-364 in Marc Bekoff with Carron A. Meaney, eds., Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998).

“Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perspective.” Pages 122-143 in Dieter T. Hessel, ed., After Nature’s Revolt: Eco-justice and Theology(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37199.  The principal focus of Biblical faith is the culture established in the land. At the same time the Bible is full of constant reminders of the natural givens. Justice is to run down like waters, and the land flows with milk and honey. The fauna is included within the covenant. Life in artificial environments, without experiencing the divine creation is ungodly. Bringing a perspective of depth, Christian conviction wants sanctuaries not only for humans, but also for wildlife.  Keywords:  faith, land ethic, Judaism, Christianity, nature, landscapes, wildlands, environmental values, endangered species.
First published in Church and Society 80 (no. 4, March/April 1990):16-40.   Reprinted in part as “Christians, Wildlife, Wildlands,” in Earth Letter, January 2001, pp. 4-6. (Earth Ministry, 1305 NE 47th St., Seattle, WA 98105.
Translated into Chinese in Dieter T. Hessel, ed., Shengtai gongyi: Dui dadi fanpuide xinyang fanxing (Taiwan: Diqiuri Chubanshe, 1997), pp. 233-265. Translated by Text Committee of the Taiwan Ecological Theology Center. ISBN 0-8006-2532-3.  Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37698.   Translated into Chinese in Chen, Tsu-Mei, ed., Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 202-207. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“Winning and Losing in Environmental Ethics.”  Pages 217-234In Frederick Ferré and Peter G. Hartel, eds., Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37702.  Will humans lose when they do the right by way of care for nature–animals, endangered species, old-growth forests? Humans ought to forgo certain opportunities for the sake of nature, but when humans do so, we have been corrected from a misperception about where the good lies and how to value it. No one loses who ends with more wisdom gained and more value conserved in the world in which he or she resides. The losers become winners, a classical ethical paradox now rediscovered in environmental ethics.  Keywords: environmental ethics, values, nature, animals, plants, endangered species, conservation, Environmental Protection Agency, ecosystems, self-interest, self-transformation, alturism.    Keynote address at University of Georgia Conference, “Environmental Ethics: Theory into Practice,” April 5-7, 1992.  Reprinted in John Echeverria and Raymond Booth Eby, Let the People Judge: Wise Use and the Private Property Rights Movement (Washington: Island Press, 1995), pages 263-273.   Condensed version published in IRAS Newsletter (Institute on Religion in an Age of Science), vol 40, no. 3, 15 April 1992, pp. 2-3.

Οι εγγενείς αξίες του φυσικου περιβάλλοντος και τα καθήκοντα που υπαγορεύονται προς αυτό [Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World] (summarized with commentary by Panagiotis Perros).  National University, Athens, Greece.  2004.  Text in Greek.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37200.  Environmental ethics stands on a frontier, as radically theoretical as it is applied. Alone, it asks whether there can be nonhuman objects of duty. Animals, plants, endangered species, ecosystems, and even Earth are progressively unfamiliar as objects of duty, and puzzles arise both for theory and practice. Answers to such questions are as urgent as any humans face, and intimately related to the four principal issues on the world agenda: peace, population, development, and environment.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental values, nature, species, ecosystems, value theory.  Originally published as: “Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World” ), pages 73-96 in F. Herbert Bormann, and Stephen R. Kellert, Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle  (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

СУЩЕСТВУЕТ ЛИ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ЭТИКА [Is there an ecological ethic?]   Pages 258-288 in L. I. Vasilenko and V. E. Ermolaeva, eds. Globaliniye Problemy i Obshchechelovecheskiye Tsennosti (Global Problems and Human Values) (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990). Text in Russian.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37193.  An ecological ethic is puzzling in its mixture of science and ethics. A) In secondary ecological ethics, we distinguish a proximate moral ought, ecologically informed, operating through natural law, but which is preceded by an antecedent moral ought that is classical. Injunctions to recycle are of this kind. B) in primary ecological ethics, ecosystemic evaluation has informed even the antecedent moral ought, and the descriptive and prescriptive arise together. Injunctions to maximize the beauty, integrity, and stability of the ecosystem are of this kind.  Keywords: environmental ethics, ecological ethics, ecology, natural law, moral principles, conservation, stewardship, ecosystems. There is a copy of the book in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1990.  Originally published as: “Is There an Ecological Ethic?” Ethics: An International Journal of  Social and Political Philosophy 85(1975):93-109.

从美到责任自然的美学与环境伦理学 [Cong mei dao ze ren : zi ran de mei xue yu huan jing lun li xue] [From Beauty to Duty: Aesthetics of Nature and Environmental Ethics].  Hubei Center for Morality and Civilization, Hubei University, 价值论与伦理学研究[Jiazhilun yu lunlixue yanjiu] [Axiology and Ethics], pages 24-40 (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Publishing Co., 2009). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37203.  The environmental ethics of Rolston has caught more and more attention in recent years. In fact, his environment aesthetics is also worthy of attention. the environmental ethics and the environmental aesthetics, which are both going towards wilderness, are not separated from each other in his eyes. When the appreciation of beauty is changed from in – position viewing to participation or from outward form to historic depth, the relationship between environmental ethics and environmental aesthetics has been established and then beauty can go towards duty.  Keywords:  beauty, participation, duty, environmental ethics, environmental aesthetics, scenic grandeur, conservation, biotic community, nature.  Originally published as: “From Beauty to Duty: Aesthetics of Nature and Environmental Ethics,” in Arnold Berleant, ed., Environment and the Arts: Perspectives on Environmental Aesthetics (Aldershot, Hampshire and Burlington, VT: UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2002), pages 127-141.

圣经与生态学 [Sheng jing yu sheng tai xue]  [Bible and Ecology],” in (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed. Tsu-Mei Chen,  环境伦理学入门  [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men] [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 208-213. (Taipei, Taiwan: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 208-213.    ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38361.  The Bible is not a book of ecology. It does recommend a human ecology, accentuating life in justice and love that makes possible a good (righteous), long (sustainable) life in a promised, promising land. Contemporary readers encounter claims about how to value nature, the earthen genesis with intrinsic goodness, blessed by God. That vision is biocentric, anthropocentric, and theocentric. The Hebrew scriptures can be a catalyst in our ecological crisis. Keywords: The Bible, ecological science, human values, ecology, natural value, environmental ethics.  Originally published as: “The Bible and Ecology,” Interpretation: Journal of Bible and Theology 50(1996):16-26.

森林伦理和多价值森林管理 [Sen lin lun li he duo jia zhi sen lin guan li] [A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management] in哲学译丛 [Zhexue Yicong] [Philosophy Translation Series]. Issue no. 2 (September 1999): 27-31  (Journal of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing).   With James E. Coufal, co-author, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, and president of the Society of American Foresters. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37126.  The Society of American Foresters (SAF) has long had an ethic of using forests to benefit society.  Now many foresters, prompted by Aldo Leopold and his land ethic, are wondering if SAF does not need a forest ethic, respecting the integrity of natural systems, to complement its ethic for society. Forests are communities as well as commodities. Forest management ought to expand from an ethical of multiple use to one of protecting multiple values found in forests.  Keywords: environmental ethics, forest management, forests and forestry, moral aspects, ethical aspects.  There is a copy of the original issue of the Journal of Forestry in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1991. Originally published as: “A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management,”Journal of Forestry 89(no. 4, 1991):35-40.

环境伦理学 : 自然界的价值和对自然界的义务 [Huan jing lun li xue : zi ran jie de jia zhi he dui zi ran jie de yi wu] [Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World], in Qiu, Renzong, ed. 国外自然科学哲学问题 [Kuo wai tzy jan k’o hsüeh che hsüeh wen t’i] [International Philosophical Problems in Natural Science] 1994, pages 276-295. (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press, 1994).   ISBN 7-5004-1514-1. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37696.   Environmental ethics stands on a frontier, as radically theoretical as it is applied. Alone, it asks whether there can be nonhuman objects of duty. Animals, plants, endangered species, ecosystems, and even Earth are progressively unfamiliar as objects of duty, and puzzles arise both for theory and practice. Answers to such questions are as urgent as any humans face, and intimately related to the four principal issues on the world agenda: peace, population, development, and environment.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, classical ethics, environmental values, conservation, ecosystems, culture.  Originally published as: “Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World.”  In F. Herbert Bormann, and Stephen R. Kellert, eds., Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle  (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), pages  73-96.

环境伦理学的种类 [Huan-Ching  Lun-Li-Shueh te Chung-Lei]   [Ethics and the Environment],  in Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 261-301. (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).   ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39004.  Twelve types of environmental ethics: 1. Humanistic and naturalistic ethics. 2. A triangular affair: humans, animals, and a land ethic. 3. Biocentrism and respect for life. 4. Deep ecology. 5. Theology and the environment. 6. Expanding communities, concentric circles. 7. Axiological environmental ethics: intrinsic, instrumental, and ecosystemic values. 8. Political ecology and green politics. 9. Sustainable development and sustainable biosphere. 10. Bioregionalism. 11. Ecofeminism. 12. Pluralism, postmodernism, and a sense of place. Variously constructed kinds of environmental ethics need to join as all humans see themselves as Earthlings, with their home planet as a responsibility.  Keywords:  sustainable development, environmental ethics, naturalistic ethics, humanisitc ethics, biocentrism, bioregionalism.   Originally published as: “Ethics and the Environment” (Types of Environmental Ethics).  Chapter 11 in Paul de Vries, Robert M. Veatch, Lisa H. Newton, Emily V. Baker and Michael Lewis Richardson,  eds., Ethics Applied, edition 2 (Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster, 1999), pages 407-437.

环境讲章 [Huan jing jiang zhang]  [Preaching on the Environment] in Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 246-261. (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).   ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38362.  Biblical faith originated with a land ethic. Within the covenant, keeping the commandments, the Hebrew people entered a promised land. Nature is the creative, generative powers on Earth. Spirit is the animating principle that raises up life from the ground. Christian citizens ought to join others shaping a public environmental ethic. Earth is promised planet, planet with promise, sacred, holy ground.  Keywords:  Christianity, Judaism, ecumenical covenant, ecological covenant, land ethics, justice, peace, integrity of creation, environmental ethics, ecosystems.  Originally published as: “Preaching on the Environment,” JP Journal for Preachers 23 (no. 4, 2000):25-32.

生命之河 : 过去,现今,未来  [Sheng ming zhi he : guo qu, xian jin, wei lai]  [The River of Life: Past, Present, Future], in Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 174-189. (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).  ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38363.   A river of life is imagery that can launch critical reflection. Life is a current, a naturally impelled flow that is energetically maintained over time. Life is a continuous and ceaseless stream that transcends the individual. In this processive on rolling we can find a confluence of the actual and the potential, the self and the other, the human and the natural, the present and the historical, and the is and the ought.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, conservation,  moral aspects, ethical aspects, biosystems, life processes.  Originally published as: “The River of Life: Past, Present, and Future,” pages 123-132 in Ernest Partridge, ed., Responsibilities to Future Generations (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1981).

生态伦理学存在吗? [Sheng tai lun li xue cun zai ma?]  [Is There an Ecological Ethic?] in Qiu, Renzong, ed. 国外自然科学哲学问题[Kuo wai tzy jan k’o hsüeh che hsüeh wen t’i] [International Philosophical Problems in Natural Science] 1990, pages 146-157. Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press, 1991.  Translated by Ye Ping, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37192.  An ecological ethic is puzzling in its mixture of science and ethics. A) In secondary ecological ethics, we distinguish a proximate moral ought, ecologically informed, operating through natural law, but which is preceded by an antecedent moral ought that is classical. Injunctions to recycle are of this kind. B) in primary ecological ethics, ecosystemic evaluation has informed even the antecedent moral ought, and the descriptive and prescriptive arise together. Injunctions to maximize the beauty, integrity, and stability of the ecosystem are of this kind.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, ecological ethics, ecology, natural law, moral principles, conservation, stewardship, ecosystems.  Originally published as: “Is There an Ecological Ethic?” Ethics: An International Journal of Social and Political Philosophy 85(1975):93-109.

看顾自然 : 从事实到价值,从尊敬到尊崇  [Kan gu zi ran :cong shi shi dao jia zhi, cong zun jing dao zun chong]  [Caring for Nature: From Fact to Value, from Respect to Reverence].    In Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 216-244.  (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).   ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38364.  Despite the classical prohibition of moving from fact to value, encounter with the biodiversity and plenitude of being in evolutionary natural history moves us to respect life, even to reverence it. Darwinian accounts are value-laden and necessary for understanding life at the same time that Darwinian theory fails to provide sufficient cause for the historically developing diversity and increasing complexity on Earth. Earth is a providing ground; matter and energy on Earth support life, but distinctive to life is information coded in the genetic molecules that superintends this matter-energy. Life is generated and regenerated in struggle, persists in its perishing. Such life is also a gift; nature is grace. Biologists and theologians join in celebrating and conserving the genesis on Earth, awed in their encounter with this creativity that characterizes our home planet.  Keywords:  environmental conservation, evolutionary natural history, fact distinction, value distinction, genetic information, nature as grace, order versus contingency, respect for nature, reverence for nature.  Originally published as:  “Caring for Nature:  From Fact to Value, from Respect to Reverence,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 39(no. 2, 2004):277-302.

科学伦理学与传统伦理学 [Ke xue lun li xue yu chuan tong lun li xue] [Science-Based vs. Traditional Culture Values in a Global Ethic]  in Qiu, Renzong, ed. 国外自然科学哲学问题 [Kuo wai tzy jan k’o hsüeh che hsüeh wen t’i] [International Philosophical Problems in Natural Science] 1994, pages 259-275. (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press, 1994).   Translated by Xu, Lan.   ISBN 7-5004-1514-1. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37699.    Do science-based values occupy a privileged position as criteria against which traditional cultural values are to be tested? Science-based values are plural and traditional values even more pluralist. Cases examined here cross a spectrum from conflict to complementarity and criticism. Authentic human life ought to go beyond both traditional cultures and science as we know it, reaching a global ethics. Respect for the community of life on Earth–ecologically and culturally–is the test of an ethic for the world.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, development, conflict, culture, ecology, conservation, humans, Earth, values.  Originally published as: “Science-Based vs. Traditional Ethics.”  Pages 63-72 in J. Ronald Engel and Joan Engel, eds.,Ethics of Environment and Development  (London: Belhaven Press and Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1990).

自然中的价值是主观的还是客观的? [Zi ran zhong de jia zhi shi zhu guan de hai shi ke guan de?]   [Are Values in Nature Subjective or Objective?]  环境与社会 [Environment and Society] 1, no. 1 (1998): 49-55, first half; 2, no. 1 (1999): 53-57, second half.   Translators: Liu Er, Ye Ping.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37697.   Prevailing accounts of natural values as the subjective response of the human mind are reviewed and contested. Discoveries in the physical sciences tempt us to strip the reality away from many native-range qualities, including values, but discoveries in the biological sciences counterbalance this by finding sophisticated structures and selective processes in earthen nature. On the one hand, all human knowing and valuing contain subjective components, being theory-laden. On the other hand, in ordinary natural affairs, in scientific knowing, and in valuing, we achieve some objective knowing of the world, agreeably with and mediated by the subjective coefficient. An ecological model of valuing is proposed, which is set in an evolutionary context. Natural value in its relation to consciousness is examined as an epiphenomenon, an echo, an emergent, an entrance, and an education, with emphasis on the latter categories. An account of intrinsic and instrumental natural value is related both to natural objects, life forms and land forms, and to experiencing subjects, extending the ecological model. Ethical imperatives follow from this redescription of natural value and the valuing process.  Keywords:  value of nature, valuation, objectivists, subjectivists.  Originally published as: “Are Values in Nature Subjective or Objective?” in Robert Elliot and Arran Gare,Environmental Philosophy (St. Lucia, New York, London:  University of Queensland Press and University Park, PA and London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983).  Also published in Environmental Ethics 4(1982):125-151.

自然的价值与价值的本质 [Zi ran de jia zhi yu jia zhi de ben zhi]  [Value in Nature and the Nature of Value], in 自然辨证法研究 [Zi ran bian lun fa yet jiu] [Studies in Dialectics of Nature] 15, no. 2 (February, 1999): 42-46.  Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing.  ISSN 1000-8934.  Translated by Liu Er.    http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37458.  Value is often thought not to exist in wild nature; it is bestowed on nature by human preferences. This prevailing account is too anthropocentric. In nature, animals value their lives; they too can have their preferences satisfied. Plants have vital needs. Species are historical forms of life defended over generations. Ecosystems are “able to generate value,” as occurs with the evolution and ecological support of organisms, animals, and humans. Earth, taken as earth, dirt, seems of little intrinsic value; but Earth, the home planet, is systemically valuable, the ground of all value.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental values, humans, species, organisms, ecosystems, philosophy of nature. There is a copy of this issue in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1999.
Also translated into Chinese a second time:  Pages 5-12  in Ye Ping, ed., 环境与可持续发展研究 [For Environment and Sustainable Development]. (Harbin, China: Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press, 1998.  ISBN 7-5388-3508-3.  Also in selected proceedings of First All-China Conference on Environment and Development, held in Harbin, China, October 24-20, 1998.

诗意地栖居于地球  [Shi yi di qi xi ju yu di qiu]   [Living Poetically on Earth].  Pages 309-328 in Yang, Tongjin, ed. 大家西学:生态二十讲 [Twenty Classical Texts of Ecological Thinking] (Tianjin: Tainjen People’s Press, 2008).  Selection taken from “Humans as Moral Overseers on Earth”, in Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics, Temple University Press, Chapter 9, p. 335-354.  ISBN 978-7-201-05824-5.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41095.   Humans have apical value (at the apex) and an apical role in natural history. Humans, biologically, are aristocrats in ecological systems. Humans have expanded their territories around the Earth. In humans there is an ethical transcendence in natural history. Such humans have an emergent responsibility, but this is misunderstood if humans claim that they and they alone have intrinsic value. This stunts humanity, because such humans do not know genuine human transcendence–an overarching care for the biodiverse forms of life on Earth. Humans become myopic when they ought to be synoptic. Humans become ultimately altruistic when they care not just for other humans but respect all life. In doing this humans discover their storied residence on Earth.  Keywords:  ecology, human ecology, environmental ethics, humans as moral overseers.

逾越节之花  [Yu Yue Jie zhi hua]  [The Pasqueflower].    In Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 192-200.  (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).  ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37208.  The Pasqueflower surviving through winter, blooming at the Pasque, Easter, offers a glimpse of the precocious exuberance of life, a token of the covenant of life to continue in beauty despite the wintry storms. To pause at first encountering it in spring is to find a moment of truth, a moment of memory and promise. Let winters come, life will flower on as long as Earth shall last.  Keywords:  spring of life, fruition, exuberance, Pasque, Passover, Easter, flowers, flower children.  Originally published as: “The Pasqueflower” Natural History (Magazine of the American Museum of Natural History) 88 (no. 4, April 1979): 6-16.  Also reprinted in Philosophy Gone Wild.

遵循大自然  [Zun xun da zi ran]  [Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?], 哲学译丛 [Zhexue Yicong] [Philosophy Translation Series] No. 4 (1998): 36-42. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37125.   In an absolute law-of-nature sense, persons inevitably follow nature. In an artifactual sense, it is impossible. Any answer must be sought in relative senses. Four are examined. The homeostatic sense is nonmoral. The imitative ethical sense is immoral. In an axiological sense we can and ought to follow nature as on object of orienting value. In a tutorial sense we can sometimes learn from nature something of our human role and character.  Keywords:  ecology, ecosystems, Mother Nature, conformity to nature, laws of nature.   There is also a copy in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1998.   There is a copy of this issue in  Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper archives, filed in 1998.   Originally published as: “Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?”  Environmental Ethics 1(1979):7-30.   Also published in Philosophy Gone Wild.

野生动物与荒野地 : 基督教的观点 [Ye sheng dong wu yu huang ye di : Ji Du Jiao de guan dian]  [Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perpsective].  Pages 233-265 in Dieter T. Hessel, ed. 生态公益:对大地返朴的信仰反省 [After Nature’s Revolt: Eco-justice and Theology] (Taiwan: Diqiuri Chubanshe, 1997).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37698.   The principal focus of Biblical faith is the culture established in the land. At the same time the Bible is full of constant reminders of the natural givens. Justice is to run down like waters, and the land flows with milk and honey. The fauna is included within the covenant. Life in artificial environments, without experiencing the divine creation is ungodly. Bringing a perspective of depth, Christian conviction wants sanctuaries not only for humans, but also for wildlife.  Keywords:  faith, land ethic, Judaism, Christianity, nature, landscapes, wildlands, environmental values, endangered species.  Also published in Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 202-207.  (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).  ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  Originally published as: “Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perspective,” in After Nature’s Revolt: Eco-justice and Theology, Dieter T. Hessel, ed., (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992), pages 122-143.

Rolston’s Streaming Media in CSU Digital Archives: http://digitool.library.colostate.edu/R/?func=collections-result&collection_id=1806

 


Natural History Articles


 

“Bristolian Shoots Rapids on America’s Wildest River,” Bristol Herald Courier (Bristol, Va. and Tenn.), Sunday, Aug. 27, 1967, sec. A, page 5A.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39366.   Rolston’s account of a river run through the Grand Canyon, Lee’s Ferry to Lake Mead, July 27-August 5, 1967.   There is an original copy of the newspaper in Rolston, CSU Library, paper archives, filed under 1967.  Keywords:  Colorado River (Colorado-Mexico), Grand Canyon (Ariz.), rapids, river expeditions, nature, flora, fauna, natural history.

“Call of the Wild: African Safari a Mix of Intrigue, Adventure, and Survival,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, October 30, 1999, pages D8, D7. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37333.  Report on trip to Botswana, environmental conservation and biodiversity, May-June 1999. Encountering a leopard in the night and wild dogs on the hunt gives experience of the ancient struggle to eat and not be eaten. Life persists in the midst of its perpetual perishing. The Dark Continent is exuberant with life. These rare carnivores struggle to survive, endangered species that ought to be conserved.  Keywords:  Africa, Botswana, wild dogs, leopards, endangered species, conservation, Dark Continent.

 

“Exploring the Great Migration of the Serengeti,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, June 3, 2007, page E4.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37330.  Report on trip to see the wildebeest migration in the Serengeti, Tanzania. In the vast wildebeest migration, a million and a half ungainly antelope migrate a thousand miles showing an endurance that belies their clumsy appearance. The American West once had a more vast migration: over 30 million bison, and we lost that greater wonder. Tanzanians, among the poorer nations, are quite resolved to keep the wildebeest free on their landscape. Older than human history, today this is the greatest wildlife show on Earth. Keywords: wildebeest, migration, Serengeti, Tanzania.

 

“Galapagos: Following in Darwin’s Footsteps,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, June 1, 2008, page E4, p. E3.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37331.    Report on trip to the Galapagos Islands. Rolston recalls Darwin’s experience encountering hundreds of “most disgusting, clumsy lizards,” three-foot marine iguanas. Not “pretty,” but then again not “disgusting.” He is not surprised that the weird wildlife had set the young Darwin thinking. Strangely, Darwin’s genius at recognizing these remote islands as an evolutionary hotspot led to a revolution in the human view of who we are, where we are, and even of life itself.  Keywords:  Galapagos Islands, evolution, Charles Darwin, wildlife,marine iguanas, tortoises.

 

“Komodo Dragons Highlight Indonesia Adventure,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, November 6, 2011, p. C8. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/46012.   Rolston account of a September 2011 trip to see Komodo dragons in the wild, on Komodo and Rinca Islands, Indonesia. Also Orange-footed Scrubfowl, or Megapodes.   Keywords:   Komodo Dragons, Komodo Island, Rinca Island, Flores Island, Orange-footed Scrubfowl. Megapodes, Water-buffalo, Wild boar, parthenogenesis.

 

“Madagascar Offers Rare Experience,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, November 28, 2010, Xplore section, pages 14-15. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39372.  Rolston’s account of a trip to Madagascar in October 2010. Lemurs, endemic fauna and flora, flying foxes, conservation in Madagascar, loss of biodiversity, forests, eroded landscape, poverty of Malagasy people.   Keywords: Madagascar, lemurs, Madagascar forests, Madagascar degraded landscape, poverty in Madagascar.

 

“Great Dismal Swamp is not a Dismal Place At All,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, September 29, 2013, p. C11.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/80604. Paddling the Great Dismal Swamp along a “ditch” (canal) dug by the slaves of George Washington, in southeastern Virginia. Lake Drummond, natural and cultural history, folklore, biodiversity in the swamp, first settlers.

 

“Wild Horses, Vast Desert.” Fort Collins Coloradoan, October 9, 2014, p. C1,C4. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/86382. Rolston travels to Mongolia in July 2014 to see Przewalski’s horses, or takhi, the only truly wild horse, never domesticated, once extinct in the wild, and now restored to the Mongolian landscape from horses that were captive in European zoos.

 

“Mystery and Majesty in Washington County,” Virginia Wildlife 29(11): 6-7, 22-24, November, 1968. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39370.  Rolston’s accounts exploring fauna, flora, and natural history in Washington County, Southwestern Virginia, during a decade of residence there, 1960s. A tribute to the Southern Appalachian hills that once were home.  There are also two original copies of the original issue of Virgininia Wildlife in Rolston, CSU Library, paper archives, filed under 1968.  Keywords:   Washington County (Virginia), natural history, fauna, flora.   Reprinted in Philosophy Gone Wild.

 

“Nature of the Beast: In Uganda People and Primates Face Unique Struggles,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, December 7, 2003. Page G4.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37332.  Report on trip to Uganda: gorilla and chimpanzee conservation and development. Uganda primate encounters leave a more lasting searching both for human origins and future hopes. Here the human species, exemplified in these Ugandans overcoming tragedy and hardship, is seeking to conserve these nearest of our primate kin. Paradoxically, in that very caring, we reveal the still quite stupendous divide that separates us from them.   Keywords:  Uganda, gorillas, chimpanzee, endangered species, conservation.

 

“Nepal: Sublime Surrounds Simple Life,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, March 28, 1998, p. D10, D9. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37329.    Report on trip to Nepal, environmental conservation, and human development, 1998. A trek in the Himalayas proves a stimulating mix of the sublime majesty of nature and the simple life of the Nepalis. They eke out a living, terracing steep slopes with manual labor. They seem backward; there is personal integrity in their weathered faces. Everest is an icon of this dialectic of majesty and poverty.  Keywords:  Nepal, Nepalis, Nepalese, Himalayas, Everest, culture, nature, conservation.

“Searching for Tigers in India,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, April 28, 2013, p. C8, p. C11. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79013. Rolston spots two tigers in the wild, one in Ranthambore National Park, one in Kanha National Park in India. Other wildlife seen: leopard, cheetal, sambar, barasinga, nilgai, gaur, wild pigs, jackals, Sarus cranes, bar headed geese. Conservation of tigers in India.

“Save Poudre as Signature of Eternity,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, January 18, 1984, page A4. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37435.   Advocating saving the Poudre River as wild and scenic, against development and dams for irrigation and residential water. The Poudre River canyon is an age-old gorge with a river still flowing free, an impressive signature of time and eternity. Having it near a growing metropolitan area, Fort Collins, is especially important for keeping a sense of perspective in the Rocky Mountain West. Saving the Poudre preserves wildness and simultaneously keeps those who visit it better proportioned persons. Keywords:  Poudre River, Poudre Canyon, conservation, environmental ethics, irrigation water.

 

“September Hawking on Clinch Mountain” Virginia Wildlife 25(9):9, 21-22, September, 1964.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39369.    Fall raptor migrations observed from Clinch Mountain, Washington County, Virginia, late 1950s, early 1960s.   Keywords:  migrations, flight patterns, hawks, Clinch Mountain (Tennessee and Virginia), species composition.  There is an original copy of this issue of Virginia Wildlife in Rolston, paper archives, filed under 1964.

 

“Siberia: Beautiful, Bleak, Full of Uncertainty,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, July 26, 1997, pages D8, D7. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37334.  Report on a trip to Siberia and Lake Baikal, with a focus on conservation biology, led by Russian scientists, and sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Riding the Trans-Siberian railway across its wildest stretches and exploring the oldest and deepest lake on Earth, with 1,500 endemic species. What should Siberia be? Forever wild? Developed? Certainly, not further exploited and impoverished. Keywords:  Siberia, Lake Baikal, conservation biology.

 

“The Coldest Place on Earth: Forbidding, Foreboding Antarctica Shrouded in Ice and Mystery,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, June 24, 2000, pages D10, D8.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37327.   Report on trip to Antarctica, environmental conservation, January-February, 2000.   Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, loneliest place on Earth–nature in her wildest and most relentless moods. This is the uninhabited continent, not just by humans, but quite forbidding for land animals. The penguins and seals are only marginally on land. Just this extreme wildness proved Antarctica’s deepest attraction.   Keywords:  Antarctica, wildness, penguins, seals, conservation.

 

“The Pasqueflower” Natural History (Magazine of the American Museum of Natural History) 88 (no. 4, April 1979): 6-16.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37703.   Philosophical reflection on the pasqueflower as a floral sign of natural meaning. The Pasqueflower surviving through winter, blooming at the Pasque, Easter, offers a glimpse of the precocious exuberance of life, a token of the covenant of life to continue in beauty despite the wintry storms. To pause at first encountering it in spring is to find a moment of truth, a moment of memory and promise. Let winters come, life will flower on as long as Earth shall last.  Keywords: spring of life, fruition, exuberance, Pasque, Passover, Easter, flowers, flower children, winter, Rocky Mountains.
Also reprinted in Philosophy Gone Wild.  Reprinted in Wilderness, vol. 29, no. 30, July 1990 (South Africa, Wilderness Leadership School), pp. 5-7.  Reprinted, translated into Chinese, “Yu-Yueh-Chieh chih Hua” in Tzu-mei Chen, ed., Introduction to Environmental Ethics (Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men) (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 192-200. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

 

 

“The Spring Bear Hunt Isn’t Fair. End it,” The Denver Post, Sunday, May 6, 1990, sec. H, page 1.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/35656.    Article arguing against spring bear hunting in the state of Colorado. In the spring bear hunt, especially with dogs, cubs are separated from their nursing mothers. If the sow is killed, the cubs starve. Bear hunting is seldom for meat, largely trophy and recreational hunting. Does Colorado wish to be a state where macho men shoot nursing mothers for fun?   Keywords:   bear hunting, bear hunt, spring, Colorado.

 

“We Should Preserve our Western Skyline,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, April 18, 1981, sec. A, page A6.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37434.    Advocating saving Horsetooth Mountain as a county park, with a referendum for sales tax increase enabling purchase of land owned by a farmer and threatened by development.  Horsetooth Mountain should be preserved as the most distinctive of the foothills peaks between Denver and Wyoming. The logo of the city of Fort Collins is this mountain, with a skein of geese, chosen as a scene distinctive to our home landscape.  Keywords:  Horsetooth Mountain (Fort Collins, Colorado), conservation, wildlife, environmental ethics, Fort Collins, Colorado.

 

“Wolves Pack in Entertainment,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, April 10, 2011. Xplore section, pages 14-15.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41093.   Account of tracking and watching wolves in Yellowstone National Park, March 2011. Agate Creek Pack, and yearling pups. Lamar Pack and elk kills. Grizzly eating bison. Alpha 06 female, pregnant, and recollections of her chasing bears from her den. Sixteen years of wolf restoration in Yellowstone.  Keywords: wolves, wolf restoration, Yellowstone National Park, conservation.

 

“Wolves Resuming their Rightful Place in our Ecosystem,” Fort Collins Coloradoan, March 24, 1996. Page E3.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37328.    Commentary on seeing the recently re-introduced Yellowstone wolves in the wild. First we heard the howl, spine-tingling, raising goose pimples. Seeing a wolf pack on a kill recalls the age-old love-hate relationship of humans with a majestic animal. Misled by Little Red Riding Hood, we have long misunderstood the wolf. Restoring wolves to Yellowstone is making moral progress.   Keywords:  wolves, wolf reintroduction, restoration, Yellowstone National Park.

 

 


 

Science & Religion: Books


Three Big Bangs: Matter-Energy, Life, Mind  (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39094.  Description, covers, contents.  Keywords: big bangs, matter, energy, life, mind, creation, universe, science, human nature.

Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).  Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39094.   Description, covers, table of contents.  See also section in this bibliography on Rolston winning the Templeton Prize.

Science and Religion–A Critical Survey (New York: Random House, 1987, text edition; Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987, hardbound.  Bought by McGraw-Hill, 1989,  Reissued  Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997, and other editions.  New edition, 20th anniversary reprinting, with new introductory chapter, “Human Uniqueness and Human Responsibility” (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2006).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37691.  Description, covers, contents, and critical notice.
“Scientific and Religious Logic” from Chapter 1 (pp. 22-31) reprinted in Michael Peterson, William Hasker, Bruce Reichenbach, and David Basinger, eds., Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).  Some summary ideas from Chapter 2 are published as: “Shaken  Atheism: A Look at the Fine-Tuned Universe,” Christian Century 103(1986):1093-1095.  There are two copies of the Christian Century issue in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1986.

Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life (Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1995; Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., purchased rights, 1997).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37689.  Description, covers, contents, and critical notice.   Edited anthology from Conference on Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life, held at Colorado State University, September 1991.  Contributors: Thomas R. Cech, Lynn Margulis and Dorion Sagan, Niles Eldredge, Michael Ruse, Francisco J. Ayala, Langdon Gilkey, Charles Birch.


 Science and Religion: Anthologies & Journal Articles


“Care on Earth: Generating Informed Concern.”  Pages 204-245 in Paul Davies and Niels Henrik Gregersen, eds., Information and the Nature of Reality: From Physics to Metaphysics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39368.   Generating beings that can care requires much complexity. DNA is best interpreted as a cybernetic process that selects for caring. In spontaneous wild nature, the processes that generate such concern have locally a narrow focus, self-survival of the organism. More inclusively, these processes generate ecosystemic networks in which life is elaborated in richness in biodiversity and biocomplexity, elaborated forms of caring. In humans, this focus is exceeded with more inclusive forms of caring. Such wider vision requires a complex brain that can, with a theory of mind, evaluate others with concern for their integrity. Humans, alone on the planet, can take a transcending overview of the whole–and care for life on Earth. The sciences trace the evolution of such escalating concern, but more complete explanations requires metaphysical and theological perspectives.   Keywords:  complexity, cybernetics, information, DNA, caring, biodiversity, biocomplexity, theory of mind, teaching, evolutionary natural history, science and religion.

“Caring for Nature: What Science and Economics Can’t Teach Us but Religion Can,” Environmental Values 15(2006):307-313.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37211.  Neither ecologists nor economists can teach us what we most need to know about nature: how to value it. The Hebrew prophets claimed that there can be no intelligent human ecology except as people learn to use land justly and charitably. Lands do not flow with milk and honey for all unless and until justice rolls down like waters. What kind of planet ought we humans wish to have? One we resourcefully manage for our benefits? Or one we hold in loving care? Science and economics can’t teach us that; perhaps religion and ethics can.   Keywords:   environmental justice, human ecology, sustainable development, sustainable biosphere, caring for creation, religion, ecology.

“Celestial Aesthetics: Over our Heads and/or in our Heads? Theology and Science 9(2011):273-285.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/45062.    Looking at the night sky, we may seem cosmic dwarfs, overwhelmed with a sense of otherness, abyss. But humans alone enjoy such celestial awe. We can move to a sense of the beholder’s celestial ancestry and ongoing relatedness in “our cosmic habitat.” That account joins aesthetics with mathematics, finds dramatic inter­relationships gathered under “the anthropic principle,” and considers meteorological aesthetics. The wonder is as much this Homo sapiens with mind enough to search the universe. What is out there is inseparably linked with what is down here. We are at home in the universe. The glory is both over our heads and in our heads.   Keywords:  aesthetics, cosmology, mathematics, clouds, meteorology, cosmic dwarfs, human uniqueness.  Translated into Finnish: “Taivas päämme: Yllä ja päässämme,” pages 162-177 in Yrjö Sepänmaa, Liisa Heikkilä-Palo, and Virpi Kaukio, eds., Korkea taivas [High Sky]. (Helsinki: Maahenki Oy, 2012).

“Community: Ecological and Ecumenical,” The Iliff Review 30(1973):3-14 (Iliff Theological Seminary, Denver).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40509.    Analysis of the inter-relations of theology and ecology. The era of ecology brings a vision of one world environmentally. The ecumenical movement hopes for a community and dialogue of faiths. Both have a common etymological root in the Greek word “oikos,” household. These two contemporary concerns, one in science, one in religion, offer the possibility of a more comprehensive sense of community. In the Bible, the earliest sin is ecological, humans despise their garden earth, and the sin of brother against brother follows. Our charge is to live on earth and keep it. Keeping Eden requires that we be our brother’s keeper. Keywords:  ecology, ecumenical movement, ecumenics, Eden earth, ecological crisis, reconciliation.

“Creation and Resurrection.” JP Journal for Preachers 32(no. 3, 2009):25-32.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37745.  Resurrection would be less surprising than a miracle we know has already happened: being created in the first place. Almost anything can happen in a world in which what we see around us has actually managed to happen. The creation has never yet proved simpler or less mysterious than we thought. To have faith in resurrection is not, in this view, to be naive but rather to be realistic.   Keywords:  universe, miracle, nature, humans, Christianity, Earth, life, faith, creation, resurrection.

“Dominion,” Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Volume 1, The Spirit of Sustainability, ed. Willis Jenkins (Great Barrington, Mass: Berkshire Publishing Group, 2010), pages 110-111. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38370.    That humans have dominion over the Earth, a claim of Abrahamic faiths, has been interpreted as the cause of the contemporary ecological crisis. Other interpretations emphasize that stewardship of the Earth is included in the idea of appropriate dominion. Humans may choose to be conquerors, gardeners, developers, trustees, or caretakers. Keywords:  humans, dominion, the Earth, nature, Abrahamic religions, ecological crisis.

“Environmental Ethics,” in Nicholas Bunnin and E. P. Tsui-James, eds., The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003), pages 517-530.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37196.   Environmental ethics is theory and practice about appropriate concern for, values in, and duties regarding the natural world. By classical accounts, ethics is people relating to people in justice and love. Environmental ethics starts with human concerns for a quality environment, and some think this shapes the ethic from start to finish. Others hold that, beyond interhuman concerns, values are at stake when humans relate to animals, plants, species, and ecosystems. According to their vision, humans ought to find nature sometimes morally considerable in itself, and this turns ethics in new directions. Keywords:  environmental ethics, environmental philosophy, nature, ecosystems, humans, animals, organisms, species, biodiversity.

“Environmental Ethics: Some Challenges for Christians.” Pages 163-186 in Harlan Beckley, ed., The Annual: Society of Christian Ethics(Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1993).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40511.    The Christian ethics for persons, calling for love, justice, benevolence, and compassion does not transfer easily to duties toward wildlife, and the difficulties compound with an ethic toward plants, species, and ecosystems. Biblical faith began with a land ethic, a covenanted promised land, and Christians find a nature that is sacred and good in itself, regardless of its human utility. Earth is a planet with promise, nature is graced with creativity. Nature is also cruciform, death is perpetually redeemed with the renewal of life, and central themes in Christianity are congenial to an environmental ethic.  Keywords: Christians and environment, compassion, plants, animals, species, sacred nature, value in nature, nature as good in itself, cruciform nature, renewal of life.   Keynote address at the Society of Christian Ethics, Annual National Conference, Savannah, GA, January 8-10, 1993.

“Evolutionary History and Divine Presence,” Theology Today (Princeton) 55(1998):415-434. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37210. The genesis of life is keyed to genes evolving in organisms. There is remarkable debate about randomness and probability, the inevitable and the contingent, actualities and possibilities, as these result in increasing diversity and complexity. The generated biological information displays a cumulative creativity that, described by science, is nowhere implied by biological theory. Such genesis invites an account of God as the Ground of Information.   Keywords: biology, secret of life, Spirit of God, evolution, natural selection, diversity, complexity.  There is also a copy of the Theology Today issue in Rolston, Colorado State University, paper archives, filed in 1998.

“Generating Life on Earth: Five Looming Questions.” Pages 195-223 in F. LeRon Shults, ed. The Evolution of Rationality. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2006.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37323.  Generating life on Earth requires creating information, the serendipitous opening up of novel possibility space, driving escalating biodiversity and biocomplexity. Biologists puzzle whether such natural history is contingent, random, probable or inevitable. Humans, uniquely on Earth, achieve highly developed cultures, with great promise and peril. We live on a wonderland Earth and are the apex of these wonders. This opens up possibility space for faith in God.  Keywords:   matter, energy, creativity, religion, science, evolution, theory of knowledge, practical reasoning, ecosystems.   A previous abbreviated version, which actually appeared in print later, is: “Originating Life: Six Big Questions.” With questions and commentary. Pages 13-21 in Connie Bertka, Nancy Roth, and Matthew Shindell, eds., Workshop Report: Philosophical, Ethical, and Theological Implications of Astrobiology. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007. Report of a symposium held February 21-23, 2003 at American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

“Genes, Brains, Minds: The Human Complex.” Pages 10-35 in Kelly Bulkeley, ed., Soul, Mind, Brain: New Directions in the Study of Religion and Brain-Mind Science (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Fall 2005). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37444.    In Earth’s genetic natural history, the most complex thing generated is the human mind. Once critics said that mind is rare, an epiphenomenon, a freakish accident. Scientists now realize that anomalous events can be quite relevatory. What we humans have cognitively become, and what we morally ought to be, reveals more than does our origin in matter. Perhaps this primate rising from the dust of the Earth, on becoming so remarkably spiritually informed, still bears the image of God.   Keywords:  creativity, evolution, biology, cybernetics, nature, culture, humans, adapted minds, adaptable minds, self-actualization.

“Genetic Values: Diversity and Complexity in Natural History.” Chapter 1 of Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37212.   Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998.  Generation of diversity and complexity in natural history over evolutionary time. Contingency, probability, inevitability in evolutionary processes. Genetic processes as creative searching, generating and testing novel forms, similar to trial and error learning. Genetic algorithms used in computer searches paralleling evolutionary genetic processes. Genetic values as intrinsic and inclusive. Genetic values as distributed and shared, in contrast to selfish genes. Evolutionary processes generating storied natural history.   Keywords:  natural history, genes, diversity, complexity, evolution, progress, genetic values.

“Human Uniqueness and Human Responsibility.”  New introductory chapter in 20th anniversary reprinting of Rolston, Science and Religion–A Critical Survey (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2006).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37326.    An interdisciplinary approach to the central themes of scientific and religious thought, beginning with matter and energy, and moving through life, mind, culture, history, and spirit. Progressively reforming scientific theories lead on larger scales to progressively developing narrative models, worldviews. Science is the first fact of modern life, and religion is the perennial carrier of meaning. “God” is still the deepest hypothesis adequate to explain the genesis of life and its millennia long survival in the midst of its perpetual perishing.  Keywords: religion, science, evolution, natural history, change, future, knowledge, power, duty, genetics, realism, social construction.

“Inevitable Humans: Simon Conway Morris’s Evolutionary Paleontology,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 40(no. 1, 2005):221-229. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37446. Simon Conway Morris, noted Cambridge University paleontologist, argues that in evolutionary natural history humans (or beings rather like humans) are an inevitable outcome of the developing speciating processes over millennia. This claim, in marked contrast to claims about contingency made by other prominent paleontologists, is based on numerous remarkable convergences–similar trends found repeatedly in evolutionary history. Conway Morris concludes facing a natural theology. His argument is powerful and informed. But does it face adequately the surprising events that redirect the course of life? The challenge to understand how humans are both “on a continuum” with other species and also “utterly different” remains a central puzzle in paleontology. Keywords: evolution; origin of humans; self-organizing complexity; convergence, co-option; human uniqueness; nature and culture; possibility space; natural theology; Simon Conway Morris.

“In the Zone of Complexity: Science and the Sacred.” Parabola 30 (no. 1, 2005):46-53.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37443.   A contemporary surprise has been waking up to deep space and deep time, to a hospitable universe, to nature’s simplicity and complexity, to information in earth history, to struggle for survival and adapted fit, to human uniqueness, to an Earth ethics, to spirit in nature, to the numinous, to a cruciform nature.   Keywords:  environmental ethics, crisis, ecology, nature, culture, humans, universe, simplicity, complexity, evolution.

“Methods in Scientific and Religious Inquiry.”
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37324.   Chapter 1 in Rolston: Science and Religion: A Critical Survey (New York: Random House, 1987; Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989; Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997; 20th anniversary edition: Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.  In generic logical form science and religion are more alike than is often supposed, especially at their cores. At the same time, science and religion typically offer alternative interpretations of experience, the scientific interpretation being based on causality, the religious interpretation based on meaning. But both disciplines are rational, and both are susceptible to improvement over the centuries; both use governing theoretical paradigms as they confront experience. The conflicts between scientific and religious interpretations arise because the boundary between causality and meaning is semipermeable.  Keywords:  science, religion, methodology, interpretations, paradigms, theory, verification.  A summary of Chapter 1 is also published as “Methods in Scientific and Religious Inquiry,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 16(1981):29-63.  There is an original issue copy filed in Rolston, Colorado State University Library, paper files, filed in 1981.

“Morals and Science Education,” in Richard Gunstone, ed., Encyclopedia of Science Education (Dordrecht: Springer Reference, 2015) , pp. 663-665. Facts and causes are the domain of science and values and duties the domain of ethics. Morality must be chosen, entered into, practice in life, in ways that science does not. The sciences open up new possibilities with which traditional moral systems are unfamiliar, such as genetic modification. They also reveal natural history and human cognitive uniqueness that can be challenging to interpret. Biologists join ethicists in respect for life. After 400 years of science, the value questions are as sharp and painful as ever. Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/89523

“Naturalizing and Systematizing Evil.” Pages 67-86 in Willem B. Drees, ed., Is Nature Ever Evil? Religion, Science and Value (London: Routledge, 2003).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37442.    Negative evils (disvalues) in natural systems, though real enough to fauna and flora adversely affected, must be fitted into an ecosystemic and evolutionary framework, with both conservation of life and generating and testing of novel life forms. Struggle and stress are as essential as life support. Such genesis is always by conflict and resolution. Life is perpetually renewed in the midst of its perpetual perishing.   Keywords:  moral evil, nonmoral evil, nature, humans, moral standards, evolution.

“Nature, History, and God”
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37325.  Chapter 7 in Rolston, Science and Religion: A Critical Survey (New York: Random House, 1987; Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989; Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997; 20th anniversary edition: Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.  Natural history, with its increasingly emergent complexity over evolutionary time, becomes deeply historical, with superintending levels, supercharged and suggesting Divine Spirit present in historical nature. Three types of theistic explanation are: scientific existentialist theism, process theism, and trans-scientific theism. Insight in both science and religion involves doing the truth in correspondent truthfulness, on the cutting edge of nature and history.  Keywords:  religion, science, nature, God, Spirit of God, supernature, supercharged nature.

“Planetary Spiritual (In)formation: From Biological to Religious Evolution.”  Pages 330-336 in Charles L. Harper, Jr., ed., Spiritual Information: 100 Perspectives on Science and Religion (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2005).
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37441.  Efforts at human self-understanding have shifted to the cybernetic brain, with its “spirited” experience. The sciences give precursor accounts of the origins of ethics in mutually beneficial helping behavior toward kin and tribe. In faith universalized, the inclusive benefit is open to all. On becoming so remarkably spiritually informed, this primate, rising from the dust of the Earth, bears the image of God.   Keywords:  human genome, cybernetics, information explosion, knowledge, cognitive development, human spirit, ethics.

“Preaching on the Environment,” JP Journal for Preachers 23 (no. 4, 2000):25-32.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37204.   Biblical faith originated with a land ethic. Within the covenant, keeping the commandments, the Hebrew people entered a promised land. Nature is the creative, generative powers on Earth. Spirit is the animating principle that raises up life from the ground. Christian citizens ought to join others shaping a public environmental ethic. Earth is promised planet, planet with promise, sacred, holy ground.
Keywords:  Christianity, Judaism, ecumenical covenant, ecological covenant, land ethics, justice, peace, integrity of creation, environmental ethics, ecosystems.   Translated into Chinese, “Huan-Ching Chiang-Chang,” in Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed. Tsu-Mei Chen (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 246-261. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“Preaching on the Wonder of Creation.” JP Journal for Preachers 34(no. 4, 2011):39-46.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/45061. Both science and religion find a wonderland Earth. Biblical faith has the conviction that species originate when God ordered earth to “bring forth swarms of living creatures.” We know that biodiversity today much better than did they, but Bible writers would have rejoiced in this fuller creation. The Hebrews found a promised land; today we can think of an Earth with promise. Both science and religion encounter nature with awe: an awe-full sublime.   Keywords:   wonderland Earth, biodiversity, creation, Biblical accounts, promised land, promised Earth, awe in nature.

Promised Land and Planet with Promise. Audio CD 22 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/80603. Chapel talk given by Holmes Rolston III at Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia, October 23, 2013. Anciently Palestine was a promised land. Landscapes east and west, north and south, on six continents have proved homelands that peoples can come to cherish and on which they can flourish. My forebears in the Shenandoah Valley, coming from Scotland, loved gospel and landscape, sometimes wondering which love took priority. When this wonderland Earth is seen as divine gift, grace, that vision makes more alarming that Earth is also a planet in peril. “A generation goes, and a generation comes, but the earth remains forever.” That ancient certainty needs now to become an urgent future hope. Today and for the centuries hence, the call is to see Earth as a planet with promise.

“Religion: Naturalized, Socialized, Evaluated.” Chapter 6 of Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37213.    Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998. Evolutionary history on the prolific Earth, resulting in nature producing spirit (Geist). The origins of evil and sin in the genesis of human life. The necessity of suffering in evolutionary creation. Religion evolving to increase human fertility. Religion generating altruism, interpreted as both pseudoaltruism and as genuine altruism. The survival value of religion. Testing religions socially and cognitively. Creativity in actual and possible natural history as the genesis of information, the genesis of value, in which theists can detect transcendent divine presence.  Keywords: religion, ethics, science, humans, genesis, fertility, self-actualizing, altruism.

“Review of Rolston, Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History” by John A. Bryant. Science and Christian Belief 12, no. 1 (April 2000): 85-86.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37214. The book is based on the author’s Gifford Lectures given at the University of Edinburgh, Nov. 1997. Dr. Rolston says the phenomena of religion and ethics cannot be reduced to the phenomena of biology. The book deals with genetic values, genetic identity, culture, science, ethics, biology and religion. Keywords:  religion, ethics, science, humans, genesis, biology, theology.   “Reading the book  …   is like listening to a long, beautifully crafted, stirring piece of music that gradually works towards a memorable finale or slowly climbing from the plains through the foothills, with views getting better and better, until one finally reaches the summit.”

“Review of Rolston, Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History” by Frederick Ferré.  International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 47, no. 3 (June 2000): 197-182. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37215.   Lord Gifford, whose bequest founded the famous Gifford Lectures more than a century ago with a mandate to advance ‘natural theology’, would be proud of this book. It constitutes the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998; and, unlike many other recent Giffords, it really does fulfill the terms of the original bequest. This fulfillment is not expressed in the traditional language that Lord Gifford would have recognized (though underneath there are still classical arguments at work), but in this volume Holmes Rolston III brings together the best of current information about nature, especially the history of this planet, with the persistent depths of classical concerns about the character of the ultimate nature of things.   Keywords: religion, ethics, science, humans, genesis, biology, theology.

Review by Rolston: “Inevitable Humans: Simon Conway Morris’s Evolutionary Paleontology,” [Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe].  Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 40(no. 1, 2005):221-229.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37446.   Conway Morris argues that humans (or beings rather like humans) are an inevitable outcome of the evolutionary process, a claim in marked contrast to claims about contingency made by other paleontologists. He is impressed by convergences. But does he face adequately the surprising events in such history, particularly in unexpected co-options that redirect the course of life?   Keywords: Conway Morris, S. (Simon), convergence, co-option, evolution, human uniqueness, natural theology, nature and culture, origin of humans, possibility space, self-organizing complexity.

Review by Rolston of Martin A. Nowak, with Roger Highfield, SuperCooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. (New York: Free Press, 2011).  Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 46:1003-1005.
http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48099.   Martin Nowak hopes by mathematical analysis to show that evolution generates Super-cooperators. Personal anecdotes here undermine his fundamental claim that everything and anything that happens in the universe is the consequence of universal logic acting on universal rules. Nowak presents “the bright side of biology,” the importance of cooperation in evolution. He thinks the long-term and ongoing results may be open. “Cooperation comes and goes, waxes and wanes. It has to be reborn in endless cycles.” Although his account might show the natural history of how cooperation evolved, it is powerless to explain how a universal ethic could be produced or kept in place, as promoted, for example, by Good Samaritans, who share both compassion and their creeds, so that there is no differential genetic benefit.   Keywords: cooperation, evolution, altruism, Good Samaritan, ethics, Martin Nowak, mathematics, mathematical biology.

Review by Rolston of Alister McGrath, The Open Secret: A New Vision for Natural Theology (Oxford: Blackwell, 2008).   In Conversations in Religion and Theology 7(no. 2, 2009):194-200.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37811.   Alister McGrath finds the search for a natural theology inconclusive, owing to a fundamental ambiguity of nature. Nevertheless, there is widespread hope that in, with, and under nature there is something sacred. By McGrath’s account, one cannot understand nature except through Jesus’ eyes. But does not Darwin open up human eyes as much as does Jesus? Christians do detect transcendence in this wonderland Earth; that witness of “baptized imagination” can complement Darwinian evolutionary accounts.  Keywords: nature,  Christianity, Christians, science, theology.   McGrath response, “On Secrets, Lilies, and Daisies,” pages 200-206.

“Science and Technology in Light of Religion.”  Pages 33-38 in Heidi A. Campbell and Heather Looy, eds., A Science and Religion Primer  (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009).   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37439.  Despite evident progress in the sciences the value questions remain as acute as ever. Technical sciences such as medical and computer science raise both theoretical and ethical issues, because they make possible novel, sometimes quite unprecedented, human actions. There lie crises ahead, not for the lack of science, but for the lack of a wisdom that only religions can supply–worldviews that orient and redeem us.  Keywords:  physics, biology, theology, scientific method, Christian West, evolutionary biology.

“Science Education and Moral Education,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science  23(1988):347-355. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/66494. Both science and ethics are embedded in cultural traditions where truths are shared through education; both need competent critics educated within such traditions. Education in both ought to be directed although moral education demands levels of responsible agency that science education does not. Evolutionary science often carries an implicit or explicit understanding of who and what humans are, one which may not be coherent with the implicit or explicit human self-understanding in moral education. The latter in turn may not be coherent with classical human self-understandings. Moral education may enlighten and elevate the human nature that has evolved biologically.  Keywords: Darwinism, ethics, evolution, moral education, nature and culture, science education, values clarification.

“Science, Religion, and Ecology.“  Pages 353-356 in Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Volume 1, The Spirit of Sustainability, ed. Willis Jenkins (Great Barrington, Mass: Berkshire Publishing Group, 2010). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38371.  Science, with its theories of natural selection and equilibrium, and religion, with its biblical descriptions of land forever flowing with “milk and honey,” have viewed nature as ever-renewing. Both have prioritized growth and its resulting abundance. As our twenty-first-century environmental crises challenge these concepts, scientists can teach us to sustain the environment while the motivations of biblical stewardship remind us to treasure Earth’s biodiversity and celebrate creation.  Keywords:  science, religion, the Earth, environmental crises, sustainability, sustainable biosphere, stewardship.

“Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology: An Overview.”  Pages 8473-8477 (vol. 12) in Lindsay Jones, Mircea Eliade, and Charles J. Adams, editors, The Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition (Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, Thomson/Gale, 2005). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37321.   Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology are related fields both of which claim that biology is the principal determinant in human affairs. A frequent motif is that the basic thrust of all life is “selfish.” Critics claim that there is, even in biology, more than one way of framing this behavior. Further, this fails to recognize the novel dimensions emergent with human culture. Persons with essentially the same genetic makeup can be converted from one worldview to another. Humans often operate with more inclusive religious and moral convictions that have little to do with selfish genes.  Keywords:  Darwinism, religion, biology, human affairs, cultural development, genes.

“The Bible and Ecology,” Interpretation: Journal of Bible and Theology 50(1996):16-26.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/35682.   The Bible is not a book of ecology. It does recommend a human ecology, accentuating life in justice and love that makes possible a good (righteous), long (sustainable) life in a promised, promising land. Contemporary readers encounter claims about how to value nature, the earthen genesis with intrinsic goodness, blessed by God. That vision is biocentric, anthropocentric, and theocentric. The Hebrew scriptures can be a catalyst in our ecological crisis.   Keywords:   The Bible, ecological science, human values, ecology, natural value, environmental ethics.
Translated into Chinese, “Sheng-Ching yu Sheng-Tai-Shueh,” in Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed. Tsu-Mei Chen (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 208-213. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“The Bond between Nature, Faith.”  Newspaper article, Easter season, in   Times Union, Albany, New York, April 4, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37445.  I’ve been lucky that my personal agenda, figuring nature out, has during my lifetime turned out to be the world agenda, figuring out the human place on the planet. Living locally led me to think globally. My autobiography is “writ large” in the Earth story. When I first find the Pasqueflower in the Rocky Mountains, my faith lives again. Finding trilliums in New York woods will do the same for you.  Keywords: science, religion, humans, theology, environmental ethics.

“The Good Samaritan and His Genes.”  Pages 238-252 in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective  (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2004).http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37322.  The Good Samaritan helping non-genetically related other does not fit well into a Darwinian framework. Some biologists claim he is constitutionally (=genetically) unable to act for the victim’s sake. There must be a self-interested account. The Samaritan, deceived about his motives, is rewarded with reproductively profitable reputation. But such behavior, praised and imitated, jumps genetic lines and there is no differential survival advantage.  Keywords:  ethics, biology, evolution, morality, Christianity, religion, genes, hypothalamus, limbic system.

“The Pasqueflower” Natural History (Magazine of the American Museum of Natural History) 88 (no. 4, April 1979): 6-16.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37703.   Philosophical reflection on the pasqueflower as a floral sign of natural meaning. The Pasqueflower surviving through winter, blooming at the Pasque, Easter, offers a glimpse of the precocious exuberance of life, a token of the covenant of life to continue in beauty despite the wintry storms. To pause at first encountering it in spring is to find a moment of truth, a moment of memory and promise. Let winters come, life will flower on as long as Earth shall last.  Keywords: spring of life, fruition, exuberance, Pasque, Passover, Easter, flowers, flower children, winter, Rocky Mountains.
Also reprinted in Philosophy Gone Wild.  Reprinted in Wilderness, vol. 29, no. 30, July 1990 (South Africa, Wilderness Leadership School), pp. 5-7.  Reprinted, translated into Chinese, “Yu-Yueh-Chieh chih Hua” in Tzu-mei Chen, ed., Introduction to Environmental Ethics (Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men) (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 192-200. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“The Science and Religion Dialogue: Why It Matters.”  Pages 33-37 in Fraser Watts and Kevin Dutton, eds., Why the Science and Religion Dialogue Matters (Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2006). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37440.  Seen in terms of their long-range personal and cultural impacts, science and religion are the two most important forces in today’s world. Science cannot teach us what we need most to know about either nature or culture: how to value it. Science increasingly opens up religious questions. The future of religion depends on the dialogue. The dialogue offers new opportunities for understanding and confronting suffering and evil. The future of Earth depends on this dialogue.  Keywords:  science, religion, nature, culture, suffering, evil.   Originally a presentation at the International Society for Science and Religion, Boston, videotaped WGBH Forum Network.  Online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37482.

“Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perspective.” Pages 122-143 in Dieter T. Hessel, ed., After Nature’s Revolt: Eco-justice and Theology(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992). http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37199.  The principal focus of Biblical faith is the culture established in the land. At the same time the Bible is full of constant reminders of the natural givens. Justice is to run down like waters, and the land flows with milk and honey. The fauna is included within the covenant. Life in artificial environments, without experiencing the divine creation is ungodly. Bringing a perspective of depth, Christian conviction wants sanctuaries not only for humans, but also for wildlife.  Keywords:  faith, land ethic, Judaism, Christianity, nature, landscapes, wildlands, environmental values, endangered species.
First published in Church and Society 80 (no. 4, March/April 1990):16-40.   Reprinted in part as “Christians, Wildlife, Wildlands,” in Earth Letter, January 2001, pp. 4-6. (Earth Ministry, 1305 NE 47th St., Seattle, WA 98105.  Translated into Chinese in Dieter T. Hessel, ed., Shengtai gongyi: Dui dadi fanpuide xinyang fanxing (Taiwan: Diqiuri Chubanshe, 1997), pp. 233-265. Translated by Text Committee of the Taiwan Ecological Theology Center. ISBN 0-8006-2532-3.   Translated into Chinese in Chen, Tsu-Mei, ed., Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 202-207. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

“The Bible and Ecology,” Interpretation: Journal of Bible and Theology 50(1996):16-26. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/35682.   The Bible is not a book of ecology. It does recommend a human ecology, accentuating life in justice and love that makes possible a good (righteous), long (sustainable) life in a promised, promising land. Contemporary readers encounter claims about how to value nature, the earthen genesis with intrinsic goodness, blessed by God. That vision is biocentric, anthropocentric, and theocentric. The Hebrew scriptures can be a catalyst in our ecological crisis.   Keywords:   The Bible, ecological science, human values, ecology, natural value, environmental ethics.   Translated into Chinese, “Sheng-Ching yu Sheng-Tai-Shueh,” in Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men (Introduction to Environmental Ethics), ed. Tsu-Mei Chen (Taipei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007), pages 208-213. ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.

环境讲章 [Huan jing jiang zhang]  [Preaching on the Environment] in Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 246-261. (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).   ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38362.  Biblical faith originated with a land ethic. Within the covenant, keeping the commandments, the Hebrew people entered a promised land. Nature is the creative, generative powers on Earth. Spirit is the animating principle that raises up life from the ground. Christian citizens ought to join others shaping a public environmental ethic. Earth is promised planet, planet with promise, sacred, holy ground.  Keywords:  Christianity, Judaism, ecumenical covenant, ecological covenant, land ethics, justice, peace, integrity of creation, environmental ethics, ecosystems.  Originally published as: “Preaching on the Environment,” JP Journal for Preachers 23 (no. 4, 2000):25-32.

看顾自然 : 从事实到价值,从尊敬到尊崇  [Kan gu zi ran :cong shi shi dao jia zhi, cong zun jing dao zun chong]  [Caring for Nature: From Fact to Value, from Respect to Reverence].    In Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 216-244.  (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).   ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38364.  Despite the classical prohibition of moving from fact to value, encounter with the biodiversity and plenitude of being in evolutionary natural history moves us to respect life, even to reverence it. Darwinian accounts are value-laden and necessary for understanding life at the same time that Darwinian theory fails to provide sufficient cause for the historically developing diversity and increasing complexity on Earth. Earth is a providing ground; matter and energy on Earth support life, but distinctive to life is information coded in the genetic molecules that superintends this matter-energy. Life is generated and regenerated in struggle, persists in its perishing. Such life is also a gift; nature is grace. Biologists and theologians join in celebrating and conserving the genesis on Earth, awed in their encounter with this creativity that characterizes our home planet.  Keywords:  environmental conservation, evolutionary natural history, fact distinction, value distinction, genetic information, nature as grace, order versus contingency, respect for nature, reverence for nature.  Originally published as:  “Caring for Nature:  From Fact to Value, from Respect to Reverence,” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 39(no. 2, 2004):277-302.

野生动物与荒野地 : 基督教的观点 [Ye sheng dong wu yu huang ye di : Ji Du Jiao de guan dian]  [Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perpsective].  Pages 233-265 in Dieter T. Hessel, ed. 生态公益:对大地返朴的信仰反省 [After Nature’s Revolt: Eco-justice and Theology] (Taiwan: Diqiuri Chubanshe, 1997).  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37698.   The principal focus of Biblical faith is the culture established in the land. At the same time the Bible is full of constant reminders of the natural givens. Justice is to run down like waters, and the land flows with milk and honey. The fauna is included within the covenant. Life in artificial environments, without experiencing the divine creation is ungodly. Bringing a perspective of depth, Christian conviction wants sanctuaries not only for humans, but also for wildlife.  Keywords:  faith, land ethic, Judaism, Christianity, nature, landscapes, wildlands, environmental values, endangered species.  Also published in Tzu-Mei Chen, ed. 环境伦理学入门   [Huan-Jing Luun-Li-Shei Ru-Men]  [Introduction to Environmental Ethics], pages 202-207.  (Tapei: Taiwan Ecological Stewardship Association, 2007).  ISBN 978-986-84047-0-0.  Originally published as: “Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perspective,” in After Nature’s Revolt: Eco-justice and Theology, Dieter T. Hessel, ed., (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992), pages 122-143.


Streaming Media


Three Big Questions. Big Bang: Start Up! Set Up?  Lecture by Holmes Rolston, III, with commentary by Roger Culver and Sanford Kern.  Recorded February 16, 2012.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/67468.  Video, 1 hour, 10 minutes.   Produced by Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University. Elements essential to life are made in the stars. Some explode; their matter condensed as planets, on one of which life evolves.  What should we make of this? Dismiss the puzzle? It really isn’t surprising that the universe has produced us. But those who want a fuller explanation will find it impressive to discover that what seem to be widely varied facts cannot vary widely if the universe is to generate matter, life, and mind Might the start up big bang might also be a set up for creative genesis. Does the astrophysics and microphysics shape our metaphysics?  Keywords:  singularity, inflation, explosion, cosmic fireball, idiographic, nomothetic, theory of everything, anthropic principle, biogenic principle.

Three Big Questions. Life: Full House! Lonely Planet?  Lecture by Holmes Rolston, III, with commentary by Michael Antolin and John McKay. Recorded March 22, 2012.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/67472. Video, 1 hour, 13 minutes.  Produced by the Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University. Where once there were no species on Earth, there are today five to ten million. Information coded in DNA, a “cybernetic” molecule. makes possible a creative upflow of life struggling through turnover of species and resulting in more diverse and complex forms of life, producing a wonderland of biodiversity. Life is ever “conserved,” biologists might say; life is perpetually “redeemed,” theologians might say. Is such creative evolutionary natural history probable, improbably, lucky, random, ordered, disordered, inevitable? Is wonderland Earth a lonely planet? What of the human responsibility to respect life? Is life sacred? A gift?  Keywords: singularity; inflation; explosion; cosmic fireball; idiographic; nomothetic; theory of everything; anthropic principle; biogenic principle.

Three Big Questions. Human Singularity. Mind. Spirit.  Lecture by Holmes Rolston, III, with commentary by Wayne Viney and Bryan Dik. Recorded April 26, 2012.  Video, lecture, 44 minutes.  Discussion, 54 minutes.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/67471.  Produced by the Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University. Humans on Earth are a singularity beyond animal achievements, considering genetics, neuroscience, moral, psychological, philosophical, and spiritual experience. This gives humans a unique dignity. Science has been discovering deep space, deep time, and pushing deep down into subatomic nature On astronomical scales, we are cosmic dwarfs. But another perspective is possible: If we ask where the “deep” thoughts about this “deep” nature are, they are right here. Such thoughts are scientific, they are also philosophical and religious. We alone can ask big questions.

Challenges in Environmental Ethics. 2005.   Video, 55 minutes.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37816.  Holmes Rolston commentary on a dozen challenging cases and issues in environmental ethics. 1. Antelope fence. 2. Hunter’s Ethic. 3. Bear Hunt. 4. Drowning whales. 5. Drowning bison. 5. Elephant calf. 7. Wawona Tree. 8. Tree spiking. 9. San Clemente Goats. 10. Old growth forest. 11. Yellowstone fires. 12. Home planet.  Presention shot at Tamasag, CSU facility near Bellvue, Colorado, February 18, 2005.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, wildlife, nature, plants, humans, conservation, ecology, ecosystems, coal mining, development, animal rescue, intervention, mercy killing, living things, endangered species, Earth.

Closer to Truth . Do General Principles Govern All Science?  Video, 26 minutes.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/67469.  Robert Lawrence Kuhn interviews:
Geoffrey West, physicist, Santa Fe Institute, on complex adaptive systems.
Martin Rees, astrophysics, Cambridge University, on complex systems resulting from simple laws.
Stuart Kauffman, theoretical biologist, Santa Fe Institute and University of Calgary, on super-critical complex systems, molecular and economic.
Holmes Rolston, III, philosopher, Colorado State University, on three Big Bangs: matter-energy, life, human mind, genesis of cognitive complexity, revealing a Logos in creation. (Rolston interview starts at 15 minutes, 20 seconds.)
David Deutsch, physicist, Oxford University, on good explanations in general systems theory.
Among the conclusions: As we get closer to truth, everything seems more interconnected. God is consistent with these general principles, but not required for them. Aired on PBS, 2012.  Episode 1004.

Closer to Truth. Why Science and Religion Think Differently.  Video, 27 minutes.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/67470.   Robert Lawrence Kuhn interviews four theologians at Helsingør, Denmark, and an atheist in London.
Niels Henrik Gregersen, theologian, University of Copenhagen. Science is more analytical, religion is more synthetic, comprehensive. The two are not at war, but religion cuts a wider path through all of human experience.
Holmes Rolston, III, philosopher, theologian, Colorado State University (Rolston interview starts at 6 minutes, 30 seconds). Science is good at empirical questions, but does not touch the deeper value questions. After four hundred years of science, the deeper value questions are as sharp and as painful as ever.
Christopher Southgate, theologian, University of Exeter. Science focuses on limited questions, but most aspects of life go beyond to questions of personal experience and transcendent truth, the answers to which are far more difficult.
Celia Deane-Drummond, theologian, Notre Dame University. The study of nature in science can point to God, but religion confronts ethical questions. The goal of the religious search is a transcendent God, who cannot be subject to the scientific analysis appropriate for the physical world.
Anthony A. C. Grayling, philosopher, atheist, New College of the Humanities, London. Science has demands for rationality and is powerfully self-correcting. Religion has faith and suppresses doubt.     Conclusions: Science cannot judge values and meaning, but it does not follow that the diverse religions can. The truth or falsity of religion must stand or fall on its own merits. Each should be assessed in its own light. The ultimate question is whether any transcendent reality exists beyond the reach of science. Aired on PBS, 2012.   Episode 1007.

Concerns Concerning Biosciences, Human Nature, and Governing Science. 45 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70421. Seminar, Governing Science: Technological Progress, Ethical Norms, and Democracy, held at Princeton University, Department of Politics, April 13-14, 2012. Rolston lecture, April 13, 2012. The biological sciences have developed dramatically in the last half century, raising concerns about their implications for human nature and behavior. While such research can and ought shape policy, policy equally should critique such research. Science, as much as any other human institution, needs its humanist critics–ethicists, philosophers, theologians, policymakers. Analysis of a half-dozen claims coming from biological sciences, to demonstrate that half-truths, if taken for the whole, can be both misleading and dangerous. Fortunately scientists are also good at being their own critics. 1. Selfish Genes. 2. Genetic destiny. 3. Pleistocene appetites. 4. Monkey’s Mind. 5. Neuroscience: Bottom up? Top Down? 6. Enlightening/escalating Self-interest. 7. Ideology: Reasoned Governing Behavior. This lecture is shortened and published as: “The Challenge of the New Millennium. Holmes Rolston III Asks Whether Reasoned Behavior [Governing Science] Is Possible in the Midst of Self-Seeking Ideologies and Ancient Appetites,” TPM The Philosophers’ Magazine (London: Royal Institute of Philosophy), Issue 59, 4th Quarter 2012, pp. 30-37. Available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70421.

Does Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature Need to be Science-Based?  Video, 22 minutes.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37809.  Interview with Holmes Rolston III conducted by Christopher Stevens, University of Helsinki, March 25, 2009. Science-based aesthetic appreciation of nature can differ significantly from non-science-based appreciation, for example in understanding a volcanic eruption in Hawaii geologically or as the anger of the goddess Pelé. Non-scientific appreciation can be sometimes appropriate as with enjoying fall leaf colors, but even this is enriched by science.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- ,  aesthetics, scientific knowledge, science, religion, nature, appreciation, perceptual experience, values, environmental ethics, duty to beauty.

Down to Earth: Persons in Nature. Part 1: 1 hour 15 minutes. Part 2: , video,1 hour, 16 minutes.  Classroom lecture by Holmes Rolston, III, in PHIL 345, Environmental Ethics, December 4, 2007.
Part 1.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37817.   Ethics living in place; Earth as home planet; Aristotle and humans as political animals, living in cities; humans as both citizens of cities and residences on landscapes; correcting Socrates (who thought that nature could not teach him anything); living on Western landscapes with “nature in your face”; four priorities on the current world agenda (peace and war, population, development, environment); escalating population; escalating consumption (affluenza).  Keywords:  abundant life, environmental ethics, Earth, global landscapes, local landscapes, ecological ethics, values, conservation, biology, nature, culture, sustainable development.
Part 2.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37818.   Humans as earthling overseers; environmental ethics as respect for life; human biography as storied residence on Earth; test for appreciating a resident environment; three role models for living in nature: Arne Naess, Norwegian philosopher; John Muir; Aldo Leopold, founder of the land ethic. Leopold’s experience of thinking like a mountain and seeing “green fire” in a dying wolf’s eyes; Earth ethics and overview of the blue planet.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, Earth, earthlings, humans, attitude toward the world, storied residence, global landscapes, local landscapes, land ethics, nature, sustainable development, home planet.

“Genetic Creativity: Diversity and Complexity in Natural History,” Lecture 1.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37813.  Video,  hour, 20 minutes.   Dr. Rolston delivers the first of his lectures in the Gifford lecture series. Video recorded on November 10, 1997, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Lecture series published as: Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).  Central to the contemporary Darwinian view is emerging diversity and complexity. Genes are critical in this historic composition. In physics and chemistry, there is matter and energy, but in biology there is proactive information. Scientists divide over whether such evolution is contingent or directional. Elements of trial and error are incorporated in a searching generative process, analogous to genetic algorithms in computing.  Keywords:  genetics, human genetics, religion, Christianity, natural history, creativity, nature, ecosystems, self-organization, evolution, progress, complexity, biology.

“Genes, Genesis and God,” Lecture 10.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37814.  Video, 1 hour, 7 minutes.  Dr. Rolston delivers the last of his lectures in the Gifford lecture series.  Video recorded on December 1, 1997, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.  Lecture series published as: Genes, Genesis and God: Values and their Origins in Natural and Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).  Humans can detect sacred presence in the epic of life. Biology leaves space for such complementary explanations. The Earth narratives must be understood in the light of the complexities to which they lead, resulting from emerging novel possibility space. God is a Generator of such possibilities. God is the Ground, Ambience of Information. The brooding winds of the Spirit move over the face of these earthen waters.  Keywords:  evolution, religion, values, Divine power, biology, genes, evolutionary ethics, genetic code.

Holmes and Jane Rolston: Memories and Recollections. The Way We Were. Holmes Rolston and his wife Jane Irving Wilson Rolston interviewed in their home by a relative, David Rolston, October 2009.
Part 1:  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38997.  Video, 52 minutes.  Holmes’ childhood, Rockbridge Baths, Virginia. Jane’s childhood, Richmond, Virginia. Holmes youth, Charlotte, NC. Davidson College and Union Theological Seminary. Holmes Graduate study, University of Edinburgh. Pastor, Walnut Grove and High Point Presbyterian Churches, Bristol, Virginia. Graduate study, Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- , Rolston, Jane Irving, 1931- .
Part 2.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/38998.    Video, 48 minutes.  Rolston, Professor of Philosophy, Colorado State University. University Distinguished Professor, Rolston’s books and publications. Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998. Templeton Prize, 2003. Intellectual Biography, Saving Creation, 2009.  Keywords:  Rolston, Holmes, 1932- , Rolston, Jane Irving, 1931- .

“Let there be light”: Science, Theology, and Aesthetic Experience of Nature, Carl Howie Lectures, Howie Center for Science, Art, and Theology, Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Virginia. Holmes Rolston delivers three lectures. Library of Congress Number: BH301.N3 R657 1998. pt. 1 pt. 2 pt. 3.    The Planet Gone Wild. Lecture 1. DVD. October 9, 1998. 39 mins. “The Earth produces of itself.” Mark 4.28. 1. Planetary Aesthetics: Earth from Space. 2. The Wild Planet: Biological Beauty. 3. Wildlands and Wonder. 4. The Planet with Promise. Online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70419.    Animals: Beasts Present in Flesh and Blood. Lecture 2. DVD. October 9. 1998. 52 minutes. “The young lions roar for their prey, seeking their food from God.” Psalm 104.21. 1. Born Wild and Free. 2. Beauty in Motion. 3. Predators and Prey. 4. Humans: Aesthetic Animals. Online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70418.    Life: Perpetually Perishing, Perpetually Regenerated. Lecture 3. DVD. October 10, 1998. 1 hour, 6 mins. “…green pastures … through the valley of the shadow of death” Psalm 23. 1. The Struggle for Survival. 2. The Evolution of Pain. 3. Regeneration and Redemption. 4. A Cruciform Creation. Online at: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70420.

Holmes Rolston Endowed Chair in Environmental Ethics : Announced March-May 2014. 2014. 32 minutes. The Holmes Rolston Endowed Chair in Environmental Ethics, made possible by donations from Holmes and Jane Rolston and by Myra Monfort, is announced at four celebration events during March, April, and May, 2014. 1. Dinner at Jay’s Bistro, with Dean Ann Gill, Holmes and Jane Rolston, Myra Monfort and selected guests, March 11, 2014. 2. The President’s Dinner for University Distinguished Professors, April 28, 2014. 3. Celebrate Colorado State, with Tony Frank, CSU President, April 29, 2014. 4. CLA Dean Ann Gill’s Reception for Faculty and Staff Donors, May 7, 2014. Online at: http://cope.colostate.edu/1ois/cla/Rolston-Endowment.wmv.

Living with Nature. 1992. Video, 1 hour.   http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37820.   Rolston interview in Athens, Georgia, April 6, 1992. 1. Values in Nature. 2. Following Nature. 3. Nature and Culture. 4. Aesthetics in Nature. 5. Concept of the Sublime. 6. Wilderness. 7. Increasing Environmental Concern. 8. Government and Business 9. Sustainability. 10. Residence on Landscapes. 11. Forests. 12. Regulation.  Keywords:   environmental ethics, biology, philosophy, values, duties, nature, culture, multiple use, multiple value, biological capital.  AVP Film and Video Productions, 1992.

Philosopher Gone Wild – Photo-Media Biography.  Video, 43 minutes.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37821.  Holmes Rolston biography, compiled in 2008.  Includes personal history with photographs; personal travels with photographs; and portions of lectures, interviews and presentations.  Shenandoah Valley childhood. Education. Years in Southwest Virginia. Grand Canyon River run. Colorado State University, classroom. Interviews. Rolston-Rollin debate, 1989. Travels, Africa, Asia and Antarctica. Science and Religion. Gifford Lectures, Edinburgh, 1997-1998. Wilderness. Templeton Prize in Buckingham Palace, 2003. The Pasqueflower, 2008.   Keywords: Rolston, Holmes, 1932- , biography.

Rediscovering, Rethinking Green Fire.  Video, 49 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/80888.   Lecture at Utah Valley University, April 4, 2013. Aldo Leopold shot a wolf a hundred years ago, the most iconic wolf kill in conservation history. He recalled the “green fire” in her dying eyes, metaphor and symbol, and his “thinking like a mountain,” when launching his land ethic, on a moral frontier. Leopold is reconsidered, searching for an Earth ethics for the new millennium, thinking like a planet. 1. The Shooting – Rediscovered and Confirmed. 2. Green Fire – Metaphor and Symbol. 3. Game Management – Predators and Prey. 4. Thinking Like a Mountain – Wolves and Ecosystems. 5. Land Ethic – Respect for Life, Landscape Integrity. 6. Beyond Green Fire – Thinking Like a Planet. Also DVD format, copies in Colorado State University Library, and in Rolston Library in Eddy Library, Philosophy Department, Colorado State University. A newspaper story about Rolston’s trip to rediscover the site of the shooting can also be found here.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/70409. Also on DVD disk in CSU Library, general circulation. Library of Congress Number: GE42 .R355 2013

Rollin-Rolston Debate on Environmental Ethics. Video, 51 minutes.  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37822   A debate held at Colorado State University on November 29, 1989 and moderated by David Crocker, Professor of Philosophy.  Bernard E. Rollin and Holmes Rolston, III, both in the CSU Department of Philosophy, debate environmental ethics. Rollin defends an animal welfare ethic and Rolston defends an ecocentric ethic.  Keywords: environmental ethics, human ecology, animal welfare, morality, ethics, animal rights, species, individual.

StoryCorps Interview. Holmes Rolston III. Rolston interviewed by Douglas Yeager, December 11, 2011.  Audio, 43 mins.http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48079.  StoryCorps is a national project recording selected persons with interesting careers, available online, often broadcast on NPR, and placed in the Library of Congress. Rolston’s youth in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. The father of environmental ethics exploring new directions interpreting values in nature. Life has a logic, a capacity for creative genesis, and that opens up possibilities for religious interpretation. Early publications, rejected, later reprinted many times. Personal agenda, loving nature, turns out to be a global environmental crisis. Recollections of being awarded the Templeton Prize. and of giving the Gifford Lectures, Edinburgh. The importance of information, beyond matter and energy, in biology, coded in DNA, yet limits to genetic explanations.   Keywords:  Holmes Rolston, biography, values in nature, environmental ethics, science and religion, Gifford Lectures, Templeton Prize.

Sustainable Development vs. Sustainable Biosphere 2009.   Video, 30 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/40518. Presentation by Holmes Rolston III to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, February 14, 2009. Economy can be prioritized, with the environment contributory. At the other pole, the environment is prioritized. A sustainable biosphere model demands a baseline respect for the integrity of natural systems. The economy must be worked out within a quality environment. Neither economics nor ecology is well equipped to analyze this issue ethically.  Keywords: sustainability, sustainable development, sustainable biosphere, environmental conservation, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED, Ecological Society of America.   Available in print as: “Sustainable Development and Sustainable Biosphere,” pages 91-10 in Jack Lee, ed., Sustainability and Quality of Life. Palo Alto, CA: Ria University Press, 2010.  Distributed by Ingram. ISBN 978-0-9743472-1-9.

The Future of Environmental Ethics (2008).  Video, 1 hour, 26 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37819.  Thomas W. Overholt Lecture given by Holmes Rolston III on November 20, 2008 at the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. Lecture considers: 1. A managed Earth and the end of nature? 2. Global warming: too hot to handle? 3. Human nature: Pleistocene appetites? 4. Sustainable development vs. sustainable biosphere. 5. Biodiversity: good for us/good in itself. 6. Earth ethics.  Keywords:  environmental ethics, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, environmentalism, ecological ethics, global warming, conservation, ruptures of history, humans, nature, biosphere, technosphere, wildlife reserves, recycling, sustainable development.

The Future of Environmental Ethics (2010). Video, 56 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/80889. Lecture at The Institute for Learning and Teaching (TILT), Colorado State University, September 22, 2010. A Managed Earth and the End of Nature? Global Warming: Too Hot to Handle? Human Nature. Pleistocene Appetites? Sustainable Development vs. Sustainable Biosphere. Biodiversity: Good for us/ Good in itself. Earth Ethics. Also on DVD disk in CSU Library, general circulation. Library of Congress Number: GE42 .R658 2010

Three Big Bangs: Matter-Energy, Life, Mind.  Video, 1 hour, 23 minutes. http://hdl.handle.net/10217/37823.   Willard O. Eddy lecture given by Holmes Rolston III at Colorado State University on September 18, 2008. There are “three big bangs” in natural history. 1. At the primordial big bang, matter-energy appears. 2. Life explodes on Earth with DNA discovering, storing, and transferring information. 3. The human genius, a massive singularity, crosses a trans-genetic threshold, generating language and making possible cumulative transmissible cultures, radically novel in kind and in scale.  Keywords:  big bang theory, evolution, intellect, universe, cosmic singularity, theory of everything, cosmological constant.

Why Wilderness? Rolston talk at the 2014 Mansfield Conference, “The Storied Past, The Troubled Future: The Imperative of Wilderness at 50 Years,” held at the University of Montana, September 10-12. DVD, 43 minutes. Online at:http://hdl.handle.net/10217/86383. 1. Half a Century of Wilderness. 2. Urban, Rural, Wild – Three-Dimensional Persons. 3. Wilderness is for People!? 4. Wilderness as Social Construct? Mind? 5. Wilderness as Social Construct? Hand? 6. The World that Runs Itself. Montana, the mountain state, can set a national and global example of conserving and celebrating wilderness.

Trails and Trips

“Trail log 1960-1969.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39091.  Rolston accounts of wilderness horseback trip in the San Juan Mountains, vicinity of Durango, Colorado, 1965; of Philmont Scout Ranch, New Mexico, and a Grand Canyon River Run, 1967. Local Colorado trails and trips, fall 1968.

“Trail log 1970-1979.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39092.  Rolston accounts of climbs of Long’s Peak, Rocky Mountain National Park in 1970 and 1971.  Accounts of hiking and backpacking, Appalachian Trail, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Accounts of Rawah Mountains, Mt. Elbert, Mt. Massive, Indian Peaks, Colorado, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Canyon National Park, Arches National Park, 1970-1979.

“Trail log 1980-1989.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39098.  Rolston accounts of wilderness trips, Colorado, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia. Ontario, Canada. Symposia, Greater Yellowstone Coalition, Montana State University, Zen Buddhism, Kyoto, Japan. Field botany with William Weber, University of Colorado, at Meeker, Colorado. Climb of Long’s Peak, August 28, 1988, Visit to Aldo Leopold shack, with Nina Leopold Bradley, Wisconsin. Begins with summary of the decade.

“Trail log 1990-1994.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39096.  Rolston accounts: South Africa, October 1990. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Brazil and United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro. Pantanal. Amazon, 1992. Europe, Wales,, Scotland, World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow, 1993, Oxford, England, and Norway, with Arne Naess.Israel and Society for Preservation of Nature in Israel, Eilat, 1994. Finland and North Cape. Bob Marshall Wilderness trip, 1994.

“Trail log 1995-1997.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39097.  Rolston accounts: Africa: East Africa, South Africa, 1995, Slovenia, 1995. Yellowstone wolves. Minnesota wolves. Sweden, Oxford, Denmark, Romania, Estonia, 1996. Australia, 1996. Siberia, Lake Baikal, 1997.

“Trail log 1998-1999.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/39095.  Rolston accounts: India and Nepal, 1998. Pokhara, trek in Annapurna vicinity, Royal Chitwan National Park, Mount Everest area trip. Finland, Aesthetics of Mires and Peatlands, Norway, North Cape, Murmansk, Russia, 1998. Sawtooths and River Run, Middle Fork Salmon, Idaho.. North China, nature reserves, 1998. Botswana and Tanzania, 1999. Sawtooths and Bighorn Crags, wilderness hiking. Idaho, 1999.

“Trail log 2000-2004.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41103.  Rolston accounts of: Antarctica, 2000 Yellowstone wolves. Backroads China, 2000. Brazil: Campo Grande and Pantanal. Churchill, Manitoba, and northern lights, 2001. Llama packing, Escalante Canyon, Utah. Guam and Inter-Pacific Science Congress. Spain. Edinburgh. Ethiopia and Uganda, 2003, Gorillas and chimpanzees. Bob Marshall Wilderness, North Chinese Wall, July 2003. Taiwan, March 2004. Teaching, spring term, Washington and Lee University. Lexington, VA, Yosemite National Park, and California Bar Association, Environmental Law.

“Trail log 2005-2009.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/41104.  Rolston accounts of: Belize, 2005. Iceland, 2005. Yukon Territory, 2005. Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, 2005. Yale University, 2005-2006. Nassau, Bahamas. 2006-2007. Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 2007. Serengeti wildebeest migration, 2007. Morelia, Mexico, 2008. Galapagos Islands, 2008. Bob Marshall Wilderness, 2008, Taiwan. 2008. Finland, 2009. Korea 2009. London and Royal Institute of Philosophy lecture, 2009.

“Trail log 2010-2011.”  http://hdl.handle.net/10217/48080.  Rolston accounts of trips:
2010 Colby College, and Maine woods, April. Virginia and Shenandoah Mountains, Rockbridge Baths, VA, April. Yellowstone National Park, Wildlife Watching and Wolf Ecology and Management Seminars, wolves, May. Indian Peaks Wilderness, Colorado, Arapaho and Caribou Pass, backpacking, August. Madagascar, lemurs, sifakas, chameleons, spiny forest, October.
2011. March, Yelllowstone wolves, American Church, Paris, March-April. Texas Panhandle, Lubbock, TX, April. Nijmegen, Netherlands, International Society for Environmental Ethics, June. Newcastle, UK: Sixth International conference on Environmental Futures, July. Symposium, Helsingør, Denmark, August. Singapore and South Asia, September. National University of Singapore. Billyoh Wetland Reserve, Singapore. Indonesia and Komodo dragons. Cambodia. Viet Nam.

“Trail log 2012.” http://hdl.handle.net/10217/79017. Rolston accounts of Yellowstone wolves, March; Utah Valley University and Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, April, Socorro isopods (endangered species), Socorro, NM; Rediscovering Aldo Leopold’s “Green Fire” site of wolf kill, Apache National Forest, Arizona; July-August; Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, August.

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